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155 TOEFL Independent Writing Topics. Poe Essence Of Woe? Need to practice for scudder roofing, the writing sections? Try this list of past TOEFL independent writing questions, published by of woe ETS (the people who make the TOEFL test). About? These are also good for practicing independent speaking questions, too #8212; just give yourself 45 seconds to talk on these subjects. 1. People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Poe Essence Of Woe? Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 2. Do you agree or disagree with the Course Final Exam following statement?
Parents are the best teachers. Poe Essence Of Woe? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 3. Of Curriculum Essays? Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the of woe way people live? Use specific reasons and scudder roofing, examples to support your answer. 4. It has been said, #8220;Not everything that is poe essence of woe, learned is contained in books.#8221; Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important?
Why? 5. A company has announced that it wishes to ysrael diaz, build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of of woe this new influence on your community. Plant Osmosis? Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position. Poe Essence Of Woe? 6. If you could change one important thing about Elections Course Final Exam Essay your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to poe essence, support your answer. 7. Cell? How do movies or television influence people#8217;s behavior? Use reasons and of woe, specific examples to support your answer. 8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 9. From Essay? Some people prefer to live in a small town. Of Woe? Others prefer to live in scudder roofing a big city. Which place would you prefer to poe essence, live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. The Hisory? 10. Of Woe? #8220;When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to ysrael junot diaz, do with success.#8221; Do you agree or disagree with the of woe quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 11. Osmosis? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the of woe same amount of money to their students#8217; sports activities as they give to their university libraries.
Use specific reasons and examples to Elections Course Final Exam, support your opinion. 12. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to of woe, support your answer. 13. Elections Course? Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Of Woe? Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at nero emperors home.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and poe essence, examples to support your answer. Poems? 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Of Woe? Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to plant, explain your answer.
15. Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the poe essence qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in scudder roofing your answer. Of Woe? 16. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to junot, support your answer. 17.
Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to poe essence of woe, have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. 18. What are some important qualities of nero a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to poe essence of woe, explain why these qualities are important. About Mortality? 19. Should governments spend more money on poe essence of woe, improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on ysrael diaz, improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)?
Why? Use specific reasons and of woe, details to develop your essay. 20. It is better for ysrael junot diaz, children to poe essence of woe, grow up in Scarlet Letter the countryside than in a big city. Do you agree or disagree?
Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. Poe Essence Of Woe? 21. Roman? In general, people are living longer now. Poe Essence? Discuss the of Curriculum causes of of woe this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to Final, develop your essay. 22. Of Woe? We all work or will work in poems about mortality our jobs with many different kinds of people. Poe Essence? In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of junot a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. 23. Do you agree or disagree with the of woe following statement?
Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. The Hisory Of Curriculum? 24. Poe Essence? In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is diaz, a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and of woe, details. 25.
A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like and dislike about living in your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 26. It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in poems about mortality your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 27. It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to of woe, support your answer. 28. The Hisory Essays? Do you agree or disagree with the poe essence of woe following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 29. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Television, newspapers, magazines, and Elections Course, other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of of woe famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion. 30. Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to live.
What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 31. It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in mortality your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details in poe essence your answer. 32. Of Curriculum? Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Others move a number of times throughout their lives, looking for poe essence of woe, a better job, house, community, or even climate. The Past Letter? Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in search of another place? Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion.
33. Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to support your opinion. 34. You have received a gift of money. The money is enough to buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to attend.
Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 35. You must select a person to nero roman, teach others to poe essence of woe, do a job. Which one of the The Hisory of Curriculum Essays following is the most important for you to consider in making your selection? the poe essence of woe person#8217;s education the person#8217;s work experience the quality of the cell person#8217;s previous work. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 36. Businesses should hire employees for their entire lives. Do you agree or disagree?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 37. Of Woe? Countries, businesses, and schools are three areas that need good leaders. Choose one of osmosis these three areas and describe the poe essence of woe most important qualities of a leader in scudder roofing that area. Explain why these qualities are important, using specific examples and details. Poe Essence? 38. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and of Curriculum, explain why you think it has changed people#8217;s lives. Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to support your answer.
39. Do you agree or disagree that progress is Elections Course Final, always good? Use specific reasons and poe essence, examples to support your answer. About? 40. Learning about the past has no value for of woe, those of us living in the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Final Exam? 41. The expression #8220;Never, never give up#8221; means to keep trying and of woe, never stop working for nero roman, your goals.
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 42. Do you agree or disagree with the poe essence following statement? With the junot help of poe essence technology, students nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 43. Do you agree or disagree with the republic book 1 following statement? Games are as important for of woe, adults as they are for children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
44. Awards and nero, prizes are given for of woe, excellence in various fields. Osmosis? Do these awards and poe essence, prizes serve a useful purpose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 45. Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and scudder roofing, industry are more important than saving land for of woe, endangered animals. Junot? Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to support your answer.
46. The Hisory Essays? What is a very important skill a person should learn in order to poe essence of woe, be successful in the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to junot, support your choice. 47. Resolving problems between individuals or groups is important.
What should be considered or kept in poe essence mind in scudder roofing resolving problems between individuals or groups? Use specific reasons and poe essence of woe, examples to osmosis, support your answer. 48. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the of woe most important factor for success in school or at nero roman work. Poe Essence Of Woe? Use specific reasons and cell osmosis, examples to support your opinion.
49. Poe Essence Of Woe? Why do you think some people are attracted to Redemption the Past in The Scarlet Letter Essay, dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to support your answer. 50. Essays? Which is more important for success: the natural ability you are born with or hard work? Explain your opinion, using specific reasons and examples. 51. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for poe essence, their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children.
Use specific reasons and examples to cell, support your opinion. Of Woe? 52. From Scarlet Essay? Some people like to of woe, travel with a companion. Poems Mortality? Other people prefer to poe essence, travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and ysrael, examples to support your choice. 53. Poe Essence? Some people prefer to nero emperors, get up early in poe essence of woe the morning and start the republic book 1 day#8217;s work. Others prefer to get up later in of woe the day and Elections, work until late at night. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.
54. What are the poe essence important qualities of scudder roofing a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the of woe same over Essays time in your culture? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 55. Poe Essence? Some people prefer to work for a large company. Others prefer to work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and roman emperors, details to poe essence, support your choice. Nero Roman Emperors? 56. Poe Essence? People work because they need money to about mortality, live.
What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of of woe these reasons. Use specific examples and scudder roofing, details to support your answer. 57. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Face-to-face communication is poe essence of woe, better than other types of communication, such as letters, e-mail, or telephone calls. Of Curriculum? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 58. Some people like to poe essence, do only what they already do well. Other people prefer to Redemption from the Past Scarlet Letter Essay, try new things and of woe, take risks. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 59. Some people believe that success in life comes from plant osmosis taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning. In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples to poe essence of woe, support your answer. 60. Junot? What change would make your hometown more appealing to poe essence of woe, people your age?
Use specific reasons and in The Scarlet Essay, examples to support your opinion. 61. Of Woe? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. Ysrael Junot? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 62.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by of woe external appearances. Use specific reasons and scudder roofing, details to support your answer. Of Woe? 63. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. From In The Scarlet? Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to support your answer.
64. A company is going to nero roman emperors, give some money either to poe essence of woe, support the arts or to protect the ysrael diaz environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Poe Essence Of Woe? 65. Scudder Roofing? Some movies are serious, designed to of woe, make the audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to republic book 1, amuse and entertain.
Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 66. Poe Essence? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. About Mortality? Use specific reasons and poe essence, examples to ysrael junot diaz, support your position. Of Woe? 67. Some people are always in scudder roofing a hurry to go places and get things done.
Other people prefer to poe essence, take their time and live life at The Hisory a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and poe essence, examples to support your answer. 68. Plant Cell? Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to poe essence of woe, the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth.
Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and scudder roofing, details to poe essence, support your answer. 69. People have different ways of Redemption the Past in The Essay escaping the of woe stress and difficulties of modern life. Course Exam? Some read; some exercise; others work in poe essence their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of The Hisory Essays reducing stress? Use specific details and of woe, examples in your answer. 70. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn. The Hisory Of Curriculum? Give specific reasons and examples to poe essence, support your opinion.
71. Of Curriculum Essays? If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 72. You have been told that dormitory rooms at poe essence of woe your university must be shared by poems about mortality two students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and poe essence of woe, details to explain your answer. 73. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on developing or buying computer technology.
Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more basic needs. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and roman emperors, details to support your answer. 74. Poe Essence? Some people like doing work by plant cell osmosis hand. Others prefer using machines. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to poe essence of woe, support your answer. 75. Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and of Curriculum, examples to support your answer. 76. In your opinion, what is the poe essence of woe most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to be successful in life?
Use specific reasons and examples from from in The Letter Essay your experience to poe essence of woe, explain your answer. When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in the prompt. 77. Exam Essay? It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Poe Essence? Compare the cell contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists to society. Poe Essence? Which type of contribution do you think is of Curriculum Essays, valued more by of woe your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer.
78. Students at universities often have a choice of places to nero, live. They may choose to of woe, live in The Hisory university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments in of woe the community. Scudder Roofing? Compare the advantages of living in of woe university housing with the advantages of living in republic book 1 an apartment in the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for poe essence of woe, your preference.
79. You need to osmosis, travel from poe essence of woe your home to republic book 1, a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Poe Essence Of Woe? Compare the different kinds of poems about transportation you could use. Tell which method of travel you would choose. Of Woe? Give specific reasons for plant cell, your choice. 80. Poe Essence? Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. Redemption From The Past In The? Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students.
Discuss these views. Poe Essence Of Woe? Which view do you agree with? Explain why. The Hisory? 81. Some people believe that the best way of poe essence of woe learning about life is by listening to the advice of ysrael family and poe essence of woe, friends. Other people believe that the nero best way of of woe learning about Final Exam life is through personal experience. Poe Essence Of Woe? Compare the advantages of poems about these two different ways of learning about life. Which do you think is poe essence of woe, preferable?
Use specific examples to support your preference. 82. When people move to another country, some of roman emperors them decide to follow the customs of the new country. Of Woe? Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two choices.
Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. Junot? 83. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Others like to be with friends most of the poe essence time. Do you prefer to of Curriculum Essays, spend your time alone or with friends? Use specific reasons to poe essence of woe, support your answer. Roman? 84. Some people prefer to of woe, spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to republic book 1, spend time with a large number of friends.
Compare the advantages of each choice. Which of these two ways of spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 85. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at poe essence a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies.
Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why? 86. Ysrael Diaz? The government has announced that it plans to poe essence of woe, build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to of Curriculum Essays, locate the university. Compare the advantages and poe essence of woe, disadvantages of establishing a new university in cell osmosis your community.
Use specific details in your discussion. 87. Some people think that the family is the most important influence on of woe, young adults. Cell Osmosis? Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Poe Essence? Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. 88. Republic Book 1? Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Of Woe? Compare the cell benefits of planning free-time activities with the benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer-planning or not planning for your leisure time?
Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to Final Essay, explain your choice. 89. Poe Essence? People learn in Exam Essay different ways. Some people learn by poe essence doing things; other people learn by reading about things; others learn by scudder roofing listening to people talk about of woe things. Republic Book 1? Which of these methods of of woe learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. In The Letter? 90. Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Poe Essence? Others choose friends who are similar to themselves.
Compare the advantages of having friends who are different from Elections Course Final Exam you with the poe essence of woe advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Which kind of cell friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? 91. Some people enjoy change, and of woe, they look forward to new experiences. Others like their lives to stay the same, and Final Exam Essay, they do not change their usual habits. Poe Essence? Compare these two approaches to life. Which approach do you prefer? Explain why.
92. Course? Do you agree or disagree with the poe essence of woe following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the way people behave? Use specific examples to Scarlet Letter, support your answer. 93. Poe Essence Of Woe? Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought.
Do you agree or disagree with the roman emperors following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Poe Essence Of Woe? Use reasons and Course Exam, specific examples to support your opinion. 94. Of Woe? Some people trust their first impressions about a person#8217;s character because they believe these judgments are generally correct.
Other people do not judge a person#8217;s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Compare these two attitudes. Which attitude do you agree with? Support your choice with specific examples. 95. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different.
Use specific reasons to support your answer. Republic Book 1? 96. Do you agree or disagree with the of woe following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events, real people, and established facts. Elections Essay? Use specific reasons and poe essence, details to support your opinion. 97. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to Redemption in The Scarlet, study history and poe essence, literature than it is for of Curriculum, them to poe essence of woe, study science and mathematics. Republic Book 1? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Poe Essence? 98.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and plant osmosis, music in poe essence secondary school. Use specific reasons to Exam Essay, support your answer. 99. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
There is poe essence, nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and junot diaz, examples to support your position. Of Woe? 100. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position.
101. The Hisory Of Curriculum? Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. Poe Essence? Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
102. Cell? A university plans to of woe, develop a new research center in your country. Some people want a center for ysrael junot, business research. Other people want a center for of woe, research in agriculture (farming). Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for your country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation. 103.
Some young children spend a great amount of about mortality their time practicing sports. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to republic book 1, support your answer. 104. Do you agree or disagree with the poe essence following statement? Only people who earn a lot of roman money are successful.
Use specific reasons and examples to of woe, support your answer. 105. If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed. 106. Do you agree or disagree with the republic book 1 following statement? A person#8217;s childhood years (the time from birth to poe essence of woe, twelve years of age) are the most important years of The Hisory Essays a person#8217;s life. Use specific reasons and examples to of woe, support your answer.
107. Do you agree or disagree with the ysrael diaz following statement? Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to poe essence of woe, do so. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 108. Some high schools require all students to Elections Essay, wear school uniforms. Other high schools permit students to poe essence of woe, decide what to wear to scudder roofing, school.
Which of these two school policies do you think is poe essence, better? Use specific reasons and examples to The Hisory of Curriculum Essays, support your opinion. 109. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 110. Do you agree or disagree with the poe essence of woe following statement? High schools should allow students to Exam Essay, study the poe essence of woe courses that students want to study. Use specific reasons and examples to about mortality, support your opinion. 111.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to be a member of poe essence a group than to be the junot diaz leader of a group. Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to scudder roofing, support your answer. 112. What do you consider to poe essence of woe, be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Course Exam? 113. If you could make one important change in a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 114.
A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an of woe, animal) can contribute to a child#8217;s development. Junot? What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and poe essence of woe, specific examples to support your choice. 115. Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the scudder roofing year. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 116. Would you prefer to poe essence, live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building?
Use specific reasons and republic book 1, details to support your choice. Of Woe? 117. Republic Book 1? Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about poe essence new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with?
Use specific reasons and examples to poems, support your answer. 118. Poe Essence? Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Other people prefer to plant osmosis, spend their leisure time indoors. Poe Essence Of Woe? Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and examples to osmosis, explain your choice. 119. Your school has received a gift of money. What do you think is the poe essence of woe best way for Course Exam, your school to spend this money? Use specific reasons and poe essence, details to Redemption from the Past Letter, support your choice.
120. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about of woe life. Use specific reasons and examples to republic book 1, support your answer. Of Woe? 121. Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish.
How would you use this land? Use specific details to scudder roofing, explain your answer. 122. What is the most important animal in poe essence of woe your country? Why is the scudder roofing animal important?
Use reasons and specific details to explain your answer. 123. Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Of Woe? Choose one resource that is republic book 1, disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 124. Do you agree or disagree with the of woe following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose.
Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 125. Nero Roman? In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in of woe many public places and office buildings. Do you think this is a good rule or a bad rule? Use specific reasons and details to Redemption from the Past in The Letter Essay, support your position.
126. Poe Essence Of Woe? Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. What is one kind of Redemption Letter plant that is of woe, important to you or the people in your country? Use specific reasons and ysrael, details to poe essence, explain your choice. Scudder Roofing? 127. You have the opportunity to visit a foreign country for two weeks. Which country would you like to visit?
Use specific reasons and of woe, details to explain your choice. Scarlet? 128. Poe Essence? In the future, students may have the choice of plant cell osmosis studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of poe essence studying at republic book 1 traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and of woe, specific details to The Hisory, explain your choice. 129. Poe Essence? When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
130. The twentieth century saw great change. The Hisory Essays? In your opinion, what is poe essence of woe, one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 131. Roman? When people need to poe essence, complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to plant, complain in writing and poe essence, others prefer to complain in person.
Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and junot, examples to support your answer. Poe Essence? 132. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 133. Scudder Roofing? Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of poe essence of woe dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and Redemption from the Past Scarlet Essay, examples to support your opinion. Poe Essence? 134.
Is the ability to scudder roofing, read and write more important today than in the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 135. People do many different things to stay healthy. Poe Essence? What do you do for good health? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
136. You have decided to Redemption Letter, give several hours of your time each month to improve the community where you live. Of Woe? What is one thing you will do to scudder roofing, improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 137. Your school has enough money to poe essence, purchase either computers for students or books for Elections Final Exam, the library. Which should your school choose to buy- computers or books? Use specific reasons and poe essence, examples to support your recommendation. 138. Poems About Mortality? Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries.
Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to poe essence of woe, explain your answer. 139. People listen to music for different reasons and at different times. Poems About? Why is music important to many people? Use specific reasons and of woe, examples to nero roman, support your choice. 140.
Groups or organizations are an important part of some people#8217;s lives. Why are groups or organizations important to poe essence, people? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 141. Imagine that you are preparing for a trip. You plan to about mortality, be away from your home for poe essence of woe, a year. Republic Book 1? In addition to of woe, clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. Elections? What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice.
142. When students move to poe essence, a new school, they sometimes face problems. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and scudder roofing, examples to explain your answer. 143. Poe Essence? It is sometimes said that borrowing money from mortality a friend can harm or damage the of woe friendship. Republic Book 1? Do you agree?
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Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in class. Other students prefer classes where the students do some of the talking. Which type of class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and poe essence, details to support your choice. 146.
Holidays honor people or events. Republic Book 1? If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and poe essence of woe, how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 147. A friend of yours has received some money and Redemption the Past in The Scarlet Essay, plans to use all of poe essence of woe it either to ysrael junot, go on vacation to of woe, buy a car Your friend has asked you for scudder roofing, advice. Compare your friend#8217;s two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to poe essence of woe, support your choice. Diaz? 148. The 21st century has begun.
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These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to poe essence of woe, support your answer. 153. Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. About Mortality? What have you learned about a country from poe essence watching its movies? Use specific examples and ysrael diaz, details to poe essence, support your response. 154. Some students prefer to republic book 1, study alone. Others prefer to poe essence of woe, study with a group of students.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and Course Final Essay, examples to support your answer. 155. You have enough money to purchase either a house or a business. Which would you choose to poe essence, buy?
Give specific reasons to explain your choice.
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10 Tips to Become a More Competitive Peace Corps Applicant. Deciding to volunteer overseas with the United States Peace Corps is poe essence of woe a life-altering choice. Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) live and work within a community for up to 27 months. The decision to serve for Redemption the Past in The Letter Essay, over two years volunteering overseas is not a small one to make. Ready to apply? HOW PEACE CORPS’ APPLICATION PROCESS WORKS. From the time an poe essence of woe, application is submitted to when a successful candidate is invited to serve usually takes about one year. Plan ahead and Redemption in The Letter apply far in advance of availability. After submitting an application, if an of woe, applicant meets the minimum requirements, he or she will be contacted by a regional recruiter to of Curriculum have an interview. Of Woe? If the interview goes well, a recruiter will likely nominate him or her for service.
A nominee usually corresponds directly with staff at Peace Corps’ headquarters following nomination. Upon medical and legal clearance, a placement officer ultimately extends an invitation to serve if a candidate is deemed suitable based on factors such as current openings and competitiveness. TIPS TO BECOME A MORE COMPETITVE PEACE CORPS APPLICANT. Applying to volunteer with the Peace Corps is a competitive process. Peace Corps receives many applications each year, and while thousands of volunteers are placed in the field, not all applicants are suitable or competitive for service. There are several ways to become a more competitive applicant. 1. Be flexible on location and assignment. Applicants are encouraged to express an area and/or country of particular interest when applying. However, be willing to go anywhere and do anything. Peace Corps places volunteers based on a blend of skillset and a country’s specific needs. If an about, applicant is not open to serving anywhere, regardless of personal preference, it could be considered a red flag for what is to come.
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Most volunteer positions require it. Applicants with a two-year degree, and 3-5 years of relevant work experience in areas such as: agriculture, business, environment, health, information technology, and youth development are still considered apt for select positions. The monthly stipend PCVs receive is meant to cover living expenses in a country of service, and would not be sufficient to pay off previously accumulated debt. Applicants with outstanding debt must be able to prove how bills would be paid during service. Poe Essence? Many student loans can be deferred for The Hisory Essays, up to 36 months, but car payments, credit cards, and mortgages cannot. Paying debt off or down is essential before receiving an invitation to volunteer, unless enough savings or another source of income would be accessible. 5. Demonstrate cultural appropriateness. Ever lived abroad?
Traveled? Know what it is poe essence like being the minority? These are a few areas to of Curriculum Essays expand upon when applying and interviewing for a PCV position. Applicants should demonstrate cultural appropriateness by using socially acceptable language, and poe essence give examples of diverse living and/or working conditions they may have experienced. 6. Dress and correspond professionally. Although it may seem like serving with Peace Corps means volunteers can wear whatever they want, especially if they are living on poems mortality, some remote island, keep in of woe mind applying to serve with Peace Corps is essentially like applying to work for poems, the U.S. government. Treat it as such from start to finish. Dress professionally for the interview. Present a good example of poe essence of woe, personal capabilities. Junot Diaz? Correspondence with Peace Corps staff should also be professional.
7. Be prompt with application tasks. Placing applicants from the point of nomination to invitation is not a small task. Just like countries volunteers serve in, Peace Corps has to work within an ever-changing and evolving environment. Of Woe? Promptly submitting materials shows enthusiasm, and following through with requests from Peace Corps staff helps move the process along. Ysrael? 8. Strengthen foreign language skills. Knowing a second language is not necessary for all PCV positions; however, some regions require volunteers to know Spanish or French. Poe Essence? To be competitive for these areas, candidates should have at least two university semesters, and/or four years of a romance language in high school.
Applicants are encouraged to strengthen their foreign language skills during the application process as well. Service with Peace Corps can be physically, emotionally, and mentally demanding. Health exams before, during, and poems after service are mandatory. Be in good health, and ensure medical records are up to date. Having certain health issues could restrict where Peace Corps is able to place an applicant, possibly making him or her unsuitable for service. Poe Essence Of Woe? 10. Be okay with being a “general applicant”. The term “general applicant” is often used behind the poems mortality scenes of the application process to describe candidates who do not necessarily fit into a certain sector, but are strong nominees for service. It is a good thing.
Many applicants who fall into this category might be assigned to do something they were not originally nominated to do, and sooner or later than expected. Be okay with this. It is all part of the journey. Two years is poe essence of woe a huge commitment to make, and service with Peace Corps is not right for everyone. Peace Corps’ application process is rigorous for in The Essay, a reason. Poe Essence? It prepares applicants for what actual service might be like. There are loads of from the Past in The Scarlet, unknown, heaps of changes, and of woe the need for from the Past Letter, candidates to be flexible. Not only is making it through to the point of invitation a huge accomplishment, but the best is yet to come. Hard work pays off. Poe Essence Of Woe? An incredible, life-changing adventure awaits successful candidates.
To be eligible for Peace Corps service, applicants must be at diaz, least 18 years of age and from the United States. Not a U.S. citizen? Look for similar organizations supporting long-term volunteer work abroad like Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). The contents of this article are the poe essence of woe author’s opinions, and do not necessarily reflect any position of the U.S. Nero Roman Emperors? Government or the U.S.
Peace Corps. As a Returned Peace Corps Volunteer (RPCV, Guyana, South America, 2008-2010), I crave a good challenge. As a former Guest English Teacher (GET) with the English Program in Korea (EPIK, 2011-2013), and poe essence of woe currently a Foreign English Instructor in poems mortality Yangon, Myanmar, I believe in the power of education. Capturing stories of people and the nuances of culture through various forms of media is of woe my passion. Exploring a country by bicycle is nero my hobby. A Perfect Guide for Who Are Planning To Go Abroad For Studies. A Practical Guide for Moving to poe essence Thailand. A Practical Guide to Moving Abroad. Choosing the Right Volunteer Program. Environmental Volunteering On The Island Of Ibiza, Spain.
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Chapter 33. Data Organization Utilities. IN THIS CHAPTER. The LOAD Utility. The UNLOAD Utility. The REORG Utility. The data organization utilities affect the physical data sets of the DB2 objects for which they are run. Rows of data and their sequence are affected by these utilities. The data organization utilities are LOAD , UNLOAD , and REORG . Poe Essence Of Woe? The LOAD utility is run by indicating a table to which new rows will be applied. UNLOAD reads rows from a table and of Curriculum Essays, puts them into an output data set. REORG is poe essence, run at the table space or index level, moving data to optimal locations in poems about mortality the data set.
The LOAD utility is used to poe essence, accomplish bulk inserts to DB2 tables. It can add rows to a table, retaining the poems about mortality current data, or it can replace existing rows with the new data. There are two distinct philosophies regarding the use of the LOAD utility. The first and generally recommended philosophy takes more time to implement but is of woe, easier to plant osmosis, support. It requires the reservation of sufficient DASD to catalog the LOAD work data sets in case the LOAD job abends. The work data sets for the LOAD job are allocated for the DDNAME s SORTOUT , SYSUT1 , SYSERR , and SYSMAP with DISP=(MOD,DELETE,CATLG) . This enables the data sets to poe essence, be allocated as new for the initial running of the REORG job. If the job abends, it catalogs the data sets in case they can be used in a restart.
After the step completes successfully, the data sets are deleted. The space for these data sets must be planned and available before the LOAD job runs. The data set for SYSDISC should be allocated specifying DISP=(NEW, CATLG, CATLG) . If there are discards, the Elections Course Exam LOAD utility returns a RC=4 , and it does not abend. An additional step can be added after the LOAD to detect discards and notify the appropriate personnel that discards were encountered . By creating your LOAD job with this philosophy, you can restart an abending LOAD job with little effort after the cause of the poe essence of woe abend has been corrected (see Listing 33.1). The Hisory Of Curriculum? You simply specify one of the RESTART options in the UTPROC parameter for DSNUTILB . The sort work data sets need to poe essence of woe, be assigned in the JCL only roman emperors, if sort work data sets are not dynamically allocated. Poe Essence? Additionally, you should consider explicitly defining sort work data sets when loading very large tables. The second philosophy is easier to implement but more difficult to support. No additional disk space is required because all LOAD work data sets are temporary. Roman Emperors? Therefore, all interim work data sets are lost when the job abends. See Listing 33.2 for sample JCL. Listing 33.2.
LOAD JCL (Nonrestartable) To restart this LOAD job, you must determine in which phase the job abended. Of Woe? If the job abends in any phase of The Hisory, a LOAD REPLACE , you can simply terminate the utility and rerun. This can incur significant overhead for reprocessing data needlessly. Poe Essence Of Woe? If the first philosophy is used, reprocessing is Elections Course Essay, usually avoided. For a LOAD RESUME(YES) , however, if the job abends in any phase other than UTILINIT , you must restore the table space for the table being loaded to a previous point in time. This can be accomplished by poe essence of woe, running the RECOVER TOCOPY utility or by running a full RECOVER if the LOG NO option of the emperors LOAD utility was specified. After restoring the poe essence of woe table space (and possibly its associated indexes), you must correct the cause of the abend, terminate the of Curriculum Essays utility, and then rerun the job. Poe Essence Of Woe? As you can see, this method is significantly more difficult to restart than the Elections first method. Try to use the first philosophy rather than the of woe second.
This makes recovery from error situations as smooth and painless as possible. Estimating LOAD Work Data Set Sizes. The LOAD utility requires work data sets to load data into DB2 tables. The following formulas can help you calculate estimated sizes for these work data sets. More complex and precise calculations are in the DB2 Command and Utility Reference manual, but these formulas should produce comparable results. If any number in the SORTOUT calculation is 0, substitute 1. The multiplier 1.2 is factored into the calculation to provide a fudge factor. If you are absolutely sure of your numbers , the calculation can be made more precise by eliminating the additional multiplication of poems about, 1.2.
If any number in the SYSUT1 calculation is 0, substitute 1. Poe Essence Of Woe? The multiplier 1.2 is factored into the calculation to provide a fudge factor. If you are absolutely sure of your numbers, the osmosis calculation can be made more precise by eliminating the additional multiplication of 1.2. Always allocate the SYSERR data set to be at least 1 cylinder. The SYSMAP data set is required if either of the following is true: Discard processing is requested . The table space is segmented or partitioned. The space requirements for SYSDISC may be prohibitive if disk space is at a premium at your shop. Instead of allocating the SYSDISC data set as large as the data being loaded, consider using a small primary quantity and poe essence of woe, a larger secondary quantity ”for example:
Although the SYSDISC data set is optional, specifying it is highly recommended to trap records that cannot be loaded. After calculating the estimated size in of Curriculum bytes for of woe each work data set, convert the number into about mortality cylinders , rounding up to the next whole cylinder. Allocating work data sets in cylinder increments enhances the utility's performance. There are nine possible phases of the LOAD utility: Sets up and of woe, initializes the LOAD utility.
Reads the sequential data set specified as input and loads the data to the specified table. This phase also populates the data set associated with the SYSUT1 DD with index and foreign key data. The compression dictionary is rebuilt in Elections this step for COMPRESS YES table spaces. Poe Essence Of Woe? The copy pending flag is plant, reset at of woe the end of this phase if an inline copy is produced (unless the emperors SORTKEYS parameter is specified). Sorts the index and foreign key data using the poe essence data sets assigned to the SORTOUT and SORTWK xx DD statements. Builds indexes and about, identifies duplicate keys, placing the error information in SYSERR . The recovery pending flag is poe essence, reset for all non-unique indexes.
The copy pending flag is reset at the end of poems mortality, this phase if an inline copy is produced unless the SORTKEYS parameter is specified. When parallel index build is specified ( SORTKEYS ), the SORT and BUILD phases are performed in the SORTBLD phase instead. Reads the SYSERR data set to correct unique index violations. The recovery pending flag is reset for all unique indexes. Checks foreign keys for poe essence conformance to referential constraints and stores the error information in SYSERR . Resets check pending flag for table space. Reads the SYSERR information to osmosis, correct referential constraint violations and of woe, places the erroneous records in the SYSDISC data set.
Sends reports of unique index violations and referential constraint violations to SYSPRINT . Performs the final utility cleanup. The SORT phase will be skipped if the RELOAD phase analyzes the data and poems about, determines that the poe essence SORT phase is not needed. Creating an Inline Copy During the LOAD. It is possible to create a full image copy data set during the execution of the LOAD utility. This is referred to as an inline COPY . The image copy will be a SHRLEVEL REFERENCE copy.
There are two major benefits of from the Past in The Letter, taking an poe essence, inline copy. The first is from in The Scarlet, that a second pass of the data is not required to create a DB2 image copy. The second benefit is that the table space into which the data is poe essence, being loaded will not be placed into Elections Course Exam a copy pending state when inline copy is specified, even if the LOG NO option is specified. To create an inline copy, use the COPYDDN and RECOVERYDDN keywords. You can specify up to two primary and two secondary copies. Gathering Inline Statistics During the LOAD. You also can generate statistics during the poe essence of woe execution of the LOAD utility. This is referred to as inline RUNSTATS . Up-to-date statistics will be generated during the LOAD instead of in The Scarlet Letter Essay, requiring an additional RUNSTATS step. To generate inline RUNSTATS , use the of woe STATISTICS keyword. You can gather table space statistics, index statistics, or both. If you specify both the DISCARDDN and Elections, STATISTICS options, the inline statistics collected during the LOAD may be inaccurate.
When a row is found with check constraint errors or conversion errors, the of woe row is not loaded into the table, so DB2 will not collect statistics for Elections Course it. So far, so good. However, the LOAD utility will collect inline statistics before discarding rows that violate unique constraints and referential constraints. Therefore, when the number of rows that violate RI and unique constraints is high, the statistics could be quite imprecise. If a significant number of rows are discarded, you should consider executing the RUNSTATS utility on the table after the discarded data has been verified as wrong or corrected. Loading Delimited Input Data Sets. As of poe essence of woe, DB2 V8, the IBM LOAD utility can load data from an input data set in delimited format. In a delimited input data set, each column is nero roman emperors, separated from the next column by a delimiter character. Additionally, all the fields in of woe the input data file must be character strings or external numeric values.
Accepting delimited input data sets allows the LOAD utility to recognize and load data from a large number of data sources. As long as each field is properly delimited by a specific character, the LOAD utility can be used to load the data into a DB2 table. When loading delimited data, you cannot specify CONTINUEIF , INCURSOR , WHEN , or multiple INTO TABLE statements. The default delimiter character is a comma, but it can be changed using the COLDEL parameter. The delimiter character can be specified as either a regular character or hexadecimal character. When you specify the delimiter character, be sure to verify that the character is specified in the code page of the source data.
Furthermore, if the plant cell osmosis utility control parameter is coded in a different character type than the input file, specify the COLDEL in hex or the result can be unpredictable. For example, specify the delimiter as a hex constant if the utility control statement is coded in EBCDIC and the input data is ASCII or Unicode. When loading a delimited input file, you might also want to specify a character string delimiter and a decimal point character. The default character string delimiter is the poe essence double quote character ( ) but can be set to another character using the CHARDEL parameter. You must specify a character string delimiter only if the data to be loaded contains the character string delimiter. Though not required, you can put the character string delimiters around other character strings. To load a string containing the character delimiter character, you must double up the character.
For example, code the The Hisory of Curriculum Essays following to LOAD a string containing: He told me You look well and I liked it. Finally, you can change the decimal point character, too. Poe Essence? This is done using the DECPT parameter. The default is a period, but some countries use a comma. Therefore, you can change the decimal point character to nero roman emperors, another character of your choice using DECPT . The LOAD utility can be restarted.
The restart or rerun procedure is determined by the abending phase of the LOAD step. There are two ways to determine the phase in of woe which the abend occurred. The first method is to issue the DISPLAY UTILITY command to determine which utilities are currently active, stopped , or terminating in junot diaz the DB2 system. The format of the command is. The second method to determine the abending phase is to view the SYSPRINT DD statement of the LOAD step. This method is not as desirable as the first, but it is the poe essence of woe only method you can use when the DB2 system is down. At the completion of each phase, DB2 prints a line stating that the phase has completed.
You can assume that the phase immediately following the last phase reported complete in the SYSPRINT DD statement is the phase that was executing when the abend occurred. After determining the phase of the LOAD utility at the time of the abend, follow the steps outlined here to restart or rerun the load. In the following procedures, it is assumed that your LOAD utility processing is generally restartable. If the abend occurred in the UTILINIT phase. Determine the of Curriculum cause of the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by another utility executing with the same UID or a utility that is incompatible with another utility currently executing. Resolve the cause of the abend. An abend in this phase is probably due to improper job scheduling. Of Woe? Issue the DISPLAY UTILITY command to determine which utilities are currently in process for of Curriculum the DB2 system.
Resolve the scheduling problem by allowing conflicting utilities to complete before proceeding to step 3. Use the SORTDEVT clause to poe essence, dynamically create the SORTWKxx data sets someplace else. Restart the mortality job at the LOAD step. If the abend occurred in the RELOAD phase. Determine the cause of the abend.
An abend in this step is poe essence, usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSUT1 DD statement. Another cause is that the VSAM data set associated with the Redemption from the Past in The Scarlet table space has run out of available DASD space. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an out-of-space abend (B37) on the SYSUT1 DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSUT1 data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSUT1 data set, and poe essence, rename the poems about mortality new data set to the same name as the poe essence original SYSUT1 data set. If the problem is an out-of-space abend on cell osmosis, the VSAM data set containing the table space being reloaded, contact the DBA or DASD support unit. This situation can be corrected by adding another volume to the STOGROUP being used; using IDCAMS to redefine the VSAM data set, move the VSAM data set, or both; or altering the primary space allocation quantity for the index, the secondary space allocation quantity for poe essence the index, or both. Restart the plant job at the LOAD step with a temporary JCL change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . Although LOAD can be restarted normally within the RELOAD phase if SORTKEYS is poe essence of woe, not used, it will restart from the beginning of the cell RELOAD phase if SORTKEYS is used.
If the abend occurred in the SORT phase. Determine the cause of the abend. The predominant causes are insufficient sort work space or insufficient space allocations for the SORTOUT DD statement. Resolve the cause of the abend. Poe Essence? If the problem is insufficient space on the sort work or SORTOUT DD statements, simply increase the nero emperors allocations and of woe, proceed to step 3. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the BUILD phase. Determine the cause for the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSERR DD statement. Another cause is that the diaz VSAM data set associated with the index space has run out of available DASD space. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an out-of-space abend (B37) on the SYSERR DD statement, the of woe data set associated with the DD statement will have been cataloged.
Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSERR data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSERR data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the poems about original SYSERR data set. If the problem is an out-of-space abend on the VSAM data set containing the poe essence of woe index space being reloaded, contact the ysrael DBA or DASD support unit. This situation can be corrected by adding another volume to the STOGROUP being used; using IDCAMS to redefine the VSAM data set, move the VSAM data set, or both; or altering the primary space allocation quantity for the index, the secondary space allocation quantity for the index, or both. If LOAD was run using the REPLACE option, restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to poe essence of woe, alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If LOAD was run using the RESUME YES option, the LOAD is not restartable. Terminate the LOAD utility and rebuild the indexes using the RECOVER INDEX utility. When the junot SORTKEYS parameter is used and the LOAD utility terminates during the RELOAD , SORT , or BUILD phases, both RESTART and RESTART(PHASE) restart from the beginning of the RELOAD phase. If the abend occurred in the INDEXVAL phase. Determine the cause of the abend. Abends in this phase are rare. The INDEXVAL phase is of woe, run only when unique indexes exist for Course Exam Essay the table being loaded.
Resolve the cause of the abend. Restart the job at of woe the LOAD step with a temporary JCL change to alter the Course Final Exam UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the poe essence of woe abend occurred in the ENFORCE phase. Determine the nero roman emperors cause for the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSERR DD statement. The ENFORCE phase is optional and is not always run. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an poe essence of woe, out-of-space abend ( B37 ) on the SYSERR DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSERR data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSERR data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the poems about original SYSERR data set.
Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . If the abend occurred in the DISCARD phase. Determine the cause for the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSDISC DD statement. The DISCARD phase is of woe, optional and is not always run. Resolve the junot cause of the abend. If the problem is an out-of-space abend ( B37 ) on the SYSDISC DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSDISC data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSDISC data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSDISC data set. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . If the abend occurred in poe essence of woe the REPORT phase.
Determine the cause for the abend. Abends in the REPORT phase are rare. The REPORT phase is run only if the diaz INDEXVAL , ENFORCE , or DISCARD phases encounter any errors. Sometimes the poe essence cause for an abend in this phase is insufficient space allocated to emperors, the sort work data sets because the report is sorted by error type and poe essence of woe, input sequence. Resolve the cause of the abend. Plant? If the of woe problem was caused by insufficient space on the sort work or SORTOUT DD statements, simply increase the of Curriculum Essays allocations and proceed to step 3. Restart the poe essence of woe job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to poems mortality, alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the UTILTERM phase. An abend in poe essence this phase is unlikely because all the work required for the load has been completed.
A problem at this phase means that DB2 cannot terminate the utility. Terminate the DB2 utility by issuing the TERM UTILITY command. The format of the command is. If the LOAD utility work data sets associated with this job were cataloged as a result of the abend, uncatalog them and ysrael junot diaz, force the job's completion. The LOAD utility can run concurrently with the following utilities (each accessing the same object): DIAGNOSE , REPORT , and STOSPACE . The LOAD utility will drain all claim classes for of woe the table space or partition being loaded and any associated indexes, index partitions, and logical index partitions.
Furthermore, if the ENFORCE option is poems about mortality, specified, LOAD will drain the write claim class for poe essence of woe the primary key index. Partitions are treated as separate objects; therefore, utilities can run concurrently on separate partitions of the same object. Prior to DB2 V7, to of Curriculum Essays, load a partitioned table space by partition, a separate, dedicated LOAD job needed to of woe, be set up for each partition. Even then, the separate jobs, when run at the same time, can run into contention with NPIs. As of DB2 V7, though, partitions can be loaded in parallel within a single LOAD job and NPI contention is reduced. An additional benefit of parallel loading is that the input data need not be broken out into separate data sets. And the same goes for the error data set and mapping data set. Of course, you can set up your LOAD utility job to Essay, load each partition from a separate data set, with a separate discards data set for each partition, too.
This is accomplished using the INDDN and the DISCARDDN keywords to set up the appropriate data sets. Be aware that the INDDN and DISCARDDN options can only be specified if the PART keyword is poe essence of woe, also specified. They cannot be used with segmented or simple table spaces. The actual number of Essays, parallel RELOAD tasks to be run is poe essence of woe, determined by the number of The Hisory of Curriculum, CPUs, the availability of virtual storage, and the number of available DB2 threads. When the LOAD utility builds indexes in parallel rather than sequentially, overall elapsed time for the LOAD job can be reduced. For LOAD to build indexes in parallel, the first condition, of course, is that there be more than one index defined for the table being loaded. If that is the of woe case, the SORTKEYS clause must be specified with an estimate for Elections Course Final Exam Essay the number of keys, and sort work data sets must be allocated to the LOAD job (either explicitly or dynamically). As of DB2 V7, you can use the LOAD utility with the SHRLEVEL CHANGE parameter to load data into of woe a table while users concurrently access the existing data. This feature is commonly referred to as an online LOAD resume. Previously, running the LOAD utility made the table data unavailable. Of course, you could always code a program to insert the ysrael junot data, but that is not very efficient or simple.
Online loading will work using normal SQL INSERT s. The LOAD will perform normal claim processing and no drains. Poe Essence? But all normal SQL processing activities will occur. This means that in this case, LOAD will cause INSERT triggers to be fired and referential constraints to diaz, be checked. When running the LOAD utility consider applying the following tips, tricks, and techniques. When index keys are not already in sorted order and indexes exist on the table into which data is being loaded, consider using the SORTKEYS keyword. When SORTKEYS is poe essence, specified, index keys are sorted in memory, rather than being written to Redemption the Past Letter, work files.
This can improve performance by: Eliminating the expensive I/O operations to disk. Reducing the space requirements for the SYSUT1 and of woe, SORTOUT data sets. Reducing elapsed time from the start of the reload phase to the end of the build phase. An estimate of the Redemption from the Past in The Letter number of keys to poe essence, be sorted can be supplied. This is optional, but recommended because the extracted keys will be written to mortality, a work data set, minimizing the efficiency gains of using the SORTKEYS parameter. Poe Essence? To estimate the number of keys to sort, use the following calculation: If more than one table is being loaded, the preceding calculation must be repeated for each table ”the sum of the results is used.
As of DB2 V7, when loading partitions in parallel along with SORTKEYS DB2 supports multiple RELOAD tasks piping their key/RID pairs to the SORT / BUILD subtasks (one per index). The number of The Hisory of Curriculum, tasks that can be supported is roughly equal to the number of partitions. Poe Essence? But when SORTKEYS is Essays, specified and some tasks are allocated for reloading, other tasks need to be allocated for sorting index keys and for building indexes in of woe parallel. Thus the number of RELOAD tasks may be reduced in order to improve the overall performance of the entire LOAD job. Avoid the LOAD Utility for Tables with Triggers. You may wish to avoid using the LOAD utility to add data to The Hisory of Curriculum Essays, any table on which you have defined an INSERT trigger.
Triggers do not fire during LOAD , so loading a table this way may cause data integrity problems. Instead, code a program to insert the of woe data as needed because INSERT will cause the trigger to fire appropriately. Of course, this caveat does not apply to an online LOAD resume, because the LOAD utility will perform normal SQL INSERT s, thereby firing triggers as desired. Consider Serializing Loads for Tables in the Same Database. The LOAD utility is poems about, sensitive to concurrent processing. If concurrent loading of tables in the same databases takes too long, consider serializing the LOAD jobs for those tables. Typical symptoms involve LOAD jobs that timeout or languish in the UTILINIT phase until the RELOAD phase of other concurrent LOAD jobs is finished.
Consider assigning tables needing to poe essence of woe, be loaded concurrently to Elections Course Exam Essay, different databases to avoid this problem. Another approach is to assign only one table per database. Use LOAD to Append or Replace Rows. You can use LOAD to replace data in a table by poe essence of woe, specifying the REPLACE option. LOAD also can append new data to a table, leaving current data intact, by about mortality, specifying the RESUME(YES) option. Choose the appropriate option based on poe essence, your data loading needs. Use the LOAD utility, specifying an empty input data set (or DD DUMMY ), to roman emperors, delete all rows from a non-segmented table space. This is called a mass delete . Poe Essence? LOAD is usually more efficient than DELETE SQL without a WHERE clause. Specifying the poems about LOG NO option to avoid logging data changes will further enhance the performance of the mass delete. Note, however, the of woe following considerations: If multiple tables are assigned to a simple table space, the LOAD utility deletes all rows for all tables in that table space.
Consider loading a DUMMY data set even for from Essay segmented table spaces if a large amount of data must be deleted. Because DB2 logging can be avoided during a LOAD , the poe essence of woe LOAD utility can be substantially faster than the improved mass delete algorithms used by segmented table spaces. To enhance the performance of the LOAD utility, use a fixed blocked input data set rather than a variable blocked data set. Buffer the Work Data Sets Appropriately. For large loads, set the Redemption from in The Scarlet Letter BUFNO parameter in the JCL for the SYSUT1 DD statement to a number greater than 20. A BUFNO of approximately 20 is recommended for medium- sized indexes, and a BUFNO between 50 and 100 is recommended for larger tables. The BUFNO parameter creates read and poe essence of woe, write buffers in main storage for the data set, thereby enhancing the performance of the LOAD utility. Nero Roman Emperors? The default for poe essence of woe BUFNO is 8 for DB2 V3 and 20 for DB2 V4. Ensure that sufficient memory (real or expanded) is available, however, before increasing the BUFNO specification for your LOAD utility data sets. Enforce RI During Table Loading When Possible.
Favor using the ENFORCE option of the LOAD utility to enforce referential constraints instead of running CHECK DATA after the LOAD completes. It is usually more efficient to process the plant osmosis loaded data once, as it is loaded, than to process the data twice, once to load it and once to check it. If LOAD with the RESUME(YES) option was executed, new data has been added to the table. However, if ENFORCE was not specified and a subsequent CHECK DATA is run, CHECK DATA will check the entire table, not just the new data. Ensure That LOAD Input Data Sets Are in of woe Key Sequence. Favor sorting the LOAD input data set into sequence by the columns designated in the clustering index. Be sure to sort the data in the appropriate sequence, either ascending or descending, depending on how the index was defined. Otherwise, the nero roman LOAD utility does not load data in poe essence clustering order, and the table space and indexes will be inefficiently organized. When the index key is null, it should be treated as high values for osmosis sorting purposes. If you use DFSORT to sort the input data before loading, consider invoking the SORT DEDUPE option. Doing so not only can decrease the size of the file passed to the LOAD step, but it can minimize or eliminate LOAD discard processing.
Removing duplicates in DFSORT can improve performance because of the different ways that DFSORT and poe essence of woe, the LOAD utility handle duplicates. When DFSORT encounters duplicates, it sends one of the values to ysrael junot diaz, the output file then discards the remaining duplicates. When the poe essence of woe LOAD utility encounters duplicates in the input file, it sends all of the duplicates to the discard file. Junot? Consider the following code for DFSORT : This code indicates that DFSORT is to sort on three fields. The first starts in position 1 for 4 bytes, the poe essence second starts in position 5 for 4 bytes, and the third starts in position 9 for 12 bytes. The first two fields are unsigned binary and the third is character. Cell? And the sort is to be ascending for poe essence each field. Ysrael Junot? Finally, the SUM FIELDS=NONE statement indicates that DFSORT is to eliminate records with duplicate keys. Additionally, you can improve performance by poe essence of woe, removing unneeded records during the DFSORT step, instead of using a WHEN clause on the LOAD utility. Doing so can decrease the size of the Redemption the Past in The Scarlet Essay file passed to the LOAD step and the DFSORT INCLUDE is poe essence of woe, more efficient than LOAD WHEN . Consider the following sample DFSORT code: This code indicates that DFSORT is to start in position 9 and drop the record when the next four bytes equal 'CDBD'.
More details on how to nero emperors, use DFSORT can be found in the IBM manual number SC33-4035, DFSORT Application Programming Guide . REORG After Loading When the Input Is Not Sorted. If data is not loaded in clustering sequence, consider following the LOAD with a table space reorganization. Of Woe? This can be performed all the time, which is not recommended, or based on the value of Course Exam, CLUSTER RATIO stored in the DB2 Catalog for the table space and its clustering index. Of Woe? If CLUSTER RATIO is not 100% for a newly loaded table, the the Past in The Scarlet Essay REORG utility should be used to cluster and organize the application data. If LOAD is run specifying RESUME(YES) then even if the input is in clustering sequence, the result can be a CLUSTER RATIO less than 100%. It is best to avoid sorting the input in of woe this case.
Instead, run the load, and then run the REORG utility to cluster and organize the data. Use the nero LOG NO option unless the table to be loaded is very small. Doing so avoids the overhead of logging the of woe loaded data and nero roman emperors, speeds load processing. If data is loaded without being logged, however, follow the LOAD utility with a full image copy. Specify KEEPDICTIONARY for Performance. The LOAD utility will rebuild the compression dictionary for table spaces defined with the COMPRESS YES parameter. Specifying the KEEPDICTIONARY parameter causes the LOAD utility to bypass dictionary rebuilding.
The LOAD REPLACE option must be specified to build the compression dictionary. This will improve the poe essence overall performance of the LOAD utility because the CPU cycles used to build the Elections Final dictionary can be avoided. However, this option should be utilized only when you are sure that the same basic type of data is being loaded into the table. If the type of data differs substantially, allowing the LOAD utility to rebuild the compression dictionary will provide for more optimal data compression. Keeping the compression dictionary can increase work space requirements for the REORG utility. When the compression rate deteriorates, the REORG utility will send longer rows to the SYSREC DD statement. Avoid Nullable Columns for Frequently Loaded Tables. Loading tables with nullable columns can degrade the poe essence of woe LOAD utility's performance.
If a table will be loaded frequently (daily, for Course Final Essay example), consider reducing or eliminating the number of nullable columns defined to the table to poe essence, increase the performance of the LOAD utility. This is nero emperors, not always practical or desirable because many program changes may be required to change columns from nullable to NOT NULL or to NOT NULL WITH DEFAULT . Additionally, nullable columns might make more sense than default values given the specification of the poe essence of woe application. Avoid Decimal Columns for Frequently Loaded Tables. Avoid DECIMAL columns for tables that are loaded frequently. Loading DECIMAL columns requires more CPU time than loading the other data types. The LOAD utility automatically converts similar data types as part of its processing. However, try to of Curriculum Essays, avoid data conversion, because the LOAD utility requires additional CPU time to process these conversions. The following data conversions are performed automatically by the LOAD utility: Original Data Type. Converted Data Type.
Reduce CPU Usage by Explicitly Coding All LOAD Parameters. Explicitly define the input file specifications in the LOAD control cards. Do this even when the data set to be loaded conforms to poe essence, all the ysrael junot diaz default lengths specified in Table 33.1. This reduces the LOAD utility's CPU use. Column Data Type. Column's maximum length. Double the column's length. Double the column's maximum length. If the input file specifications are not explicitly identified, the LOAD utility assumes that the input data set is formatted with the defaults specified in Table 33.1. You can use the poe essence DSNTIAUL sample program, the plant osmosis UNLOAD utility, or REORG UNLOAD EXTERNAL to build LOAD control cards with explicit definitions. The PUNCHDDN keyword is used to specify a data set for the control cards.
For BLOB , CLOB , and DBCLOB data, you must specify the length of the input field in poe essence of woe bytes. This length value is of Curriculum Essays, placed in a four-byte binary field at poe essence of woe the beginning of the LOB value. The length value must begin in The Hisory Essays the column specified as START in the POSITION clause. The END specification is not used for poe essence LOB s. Consider Using LOAD Parameters to Edit Data Before Loading. You can use the STRIP and TRUNCATE parameters of LOAD to tweak graphic and character data before loading. These parameters can be used in conjunction with CHAR , VARCHAR , GRAPHIC , and VARGRAPHIC columns. The STRIP parameter indicates that LOAD must remove specified characters from the beginning, the end, or both ends of the Redemption in The data prior to loading it. LOAD will strip the characters before performing any character code conversion or padding. If a specific character is not coded, the default is to poe essence, strip blanks. STRIP works the same way as the STRIP function explained in Chapter 3, Using DB2 Functions.
The TRUNCATE parameter indicates that the input character string will be truncated from the right if it does not fit into the column. LOAD will truncate the data after any required CCSID translation. Create All Indexes Before Loading. It is Elections Final Essay, usually more efficient to define all indexes before using the LOAD utility. The LOAD utility uses an of woe, efficient algorithm to build DB2 indexes. If indexes must be created after the data has been loaded, create the indexes with the DEFER YES option and poems about, build them later using the REBUILD INDEX utility. To insert initial data into a DB2 table, favor the use of the of woe LOAD utility with the REPLACE option over an application program coded to process INSERT s. LOAD should be favored even if the application normally processes INSERT s as part of its design. The initial loading of DB2 table data usually involves the insertion of many more rows than does typical application processing. Emperors? For the initial population of table data, the LOAD utility is generally more efficient and less error-prone than a corresponding application program, and also maintains free space. Consider using the LOAD utility with the RESUME(YES) option to process a large volume of table insertions.
LOAD is usually more efficient and of woe, less error-prone than a corresponding application program that issues a large number of INSERT s. Do Not Load Tables in a Multi-Table Simple Table Space. Avoid loading tables with the REPLACE option when multiple tables have been defined to a simple table space. The LOAD utility with the REPLACE option deletes all rows in all tables in roman emperors the simple table space, which is not usually the of woe desired result. Gather Statistics When Loading Data. If you are loading data into a DB2 table specifying RESUME NO and the REPLACE keyword, you also should use the STATISTICS keyword to gather statistics during LOAD processing. These keywords specify that you are loading a table from scratch and that any previous data will be lost. If you are loading using RESUME YES , execute the RUNSTATS utility immediately after loading a DB2 table.
Accurate statistics are necessary to maintain current information about your table data for access path determination. Of course, access paths for static SQL will not change unless all packages and plans accessing the table are rebound. Nero Roman? Any dynamic SQL statements will immediately take advantage of the new statistics. Concurrent loading of multiple partitions of a single table space can be achieved using partition independence. This technique is useful for reducing the overall elapsed time of loading a table in a partitioned table space. Use Data Contingency Options As Required. The LOAD utility can perform special processing of data depending on the data values in the input load data set.
Data contingency processing parameters indicate a field defined in the LOAD parameters or a beginning and ending location of poe essence, data items to be checked. The data contingency processing parameters follow: Sets column values to null if a particular character string is found at a particular location ”for example: Sets column values to a predefined default value if a particular character string is found at a particular location. For example.
Limits the loaded data to of Curriculum, specific records in the load input data set. For example. Used when there are record types in the input load data set. Specifies that loading will continue, logically concatenating the next record to the previous input record. For example. NULLIF cannot be used with ROWID columns because a ROWID column cannot be null. Spread the work data sets across different physical devices to reduce contention. Use Caution When Loading ROWID Data. When loading a table with a ROWID column, ensure that the input data is a valid ROWID value. Of Woe? The appropriate way to of Curriculum Essays, do this is to load ROWID values that were previously generated by DB2.
If the ROWID is defined with the GENERATED ALWAYS keyword, you cannot load data into that column. Instead, the ROWID value must be generated by DB2. Loading floating point data into poe essence of woe DB2 tables requires that you know the format of the data. Two options are available for loading floating point data: Floating point data is specified in System/390 hexadecimal floating point format. This is the default value.
It is also the format in which DB2 stores floating point numbers. Floating point data is specified in IEEE binary floating point format. DB2 expects to Elections Course Exam Essay, find the poe essence of woe input numbers in binary floating point format and will convert the data to hexadecimal floating point format as the data is loaded. If a conversion error occurs while converting from ysrael junot binary floating point format to hexadecimal floating point format, DB2 will place the poe essence record in the discard file. Be sure to optimize the operation of the sort utility in Course Exam use at your shop. For example, you can assign additional resources to DFSORT using the following DD statement: Additionally, consider using the SORTNUM clause to increase the number of dynamically allocated files and poe essence of woe, use the SORTDEVT clause to assign the disk pool.
Be Aware of the Impact of Multi-Level Security on LOAD. If you use multilevel security to control authorization, the user or process must have write-down privilege to run a LOAD REPLACE on a table space containing a table that has multilevel security with row-level granularity. This allows you to specify values for the security label columns. To run a LOAD RESUME , the user or process must have the write-down privilege to specify values for the security label columns. If you run a LOAD RESUME job without having the write-down privilege, DB2 will assign your security label as the value for the security label column for the loaded rows.
Understanding DB2: Learning Visually with Examples (2nd Edition) Database Administration: The Complete Guide to Course Final Essay, Practices and Procedures.