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amy resume Writer: Suidooster soap, KykNet/Gambit Films. Playwright: The Children's Monologues for Dramatic Need, UK, directed by Danny Boyle. Writer: Xenagogue exhibition, commissioned by James Webb, for the Hordaland Kunstsenter, Norway. Playwriting: Flight Lessons at Theatre503, London and Edinburgh Festival. President: Women Playwrights International. Director: Chomi at the National Arts Festival, Grahamstown. Conference Director: 2015 Women Playwrights International Conference in high context culture, Cape Town.

Writer: Being A Woman In Cape Town, publication by The Process of Risk Management WomanZone Cape Town. Co-Researcher: African Women Playwrights Network (AWPN), funded by the Arts Humanities Research Council. Destiny Magazine Power of 40 report. Lecturer: University of Cape Town Drama Department. Playwriting: All Who Pass. Royal Court South African Season, London. Japan High! Playwriting: Flight Lessons. Jermyn Street Theatre, London. Sound! Publication: Theatre Directing in high context, South Africa (interview), ed. Roel Twijnstra: Jacana Publishers (forthcoming)

Publication: Cape of scientific revolution, Flows: performing Migrancy and Mobility at the Tip of the japan high context, African Continent (chapter) ed. Mark Fleishman: Palgrave Macmillan (forthcoming) Columnist - The Big Issue (South Africa) Feature Film development: While You Weren't Looking, produced by Film The Matrix Out In Africa film festival. Feature FIlm development: Sonskyn Beperk, produced by West Five Films, Johannesburg. Translation: Naked Lunch by Oscar Van Woensel for high Club Guy Roni, Netherlands. Scientific! Award: Mail Guardian 200 Young South Africans 2013. Play development grant : UK Arts Council / Bush Theatre, London. Dramaturg: Rob Drummer. International Playwriting Residency : Royal Court Theatre, London. Japan High Context Culture! Content Producer/Writer - Every1Mobile, Cape Town.

Playwriting: Free Falling Bird at The Process of Risk Essay Bush Theatre, London. Director: Rob Drummer. Published: Other People’s Lives in SA Gay Plays Volume 2, Junkets Publishers. Japan! Speaker Panelist : GIPCA Playwrights Playwriting Conference, Cape Town. Playwriting : Kitchen invited to Women Playwrights International Festival in Stockholm, Sweden. Playwriting: Other People’s Lives at the Artscape Spring Drama Season. The Process Of Risk! Playwriting Directing: Selected for the Lincoln Center Theater Director’s Lab in New York. Directing: Here Lies the high context culture, Last Broken Heart, Grahamstown National Arts Festival Main Stage 2012, City VarsityUniversity of Cape Town International Exchange Award: Scholarship to causes of the scientific revolution, the School for Contemporary Arts, Vancouver. Teaching: Writing and story strategies to undergraduates, Woodward School for Contemporary Arts at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver. Directing / Playwriting : Free Falling Bird , Performed reading at the University of Cape Town. Facilitator: Playwriting Workshop, Magnet Theatre in Clanwilliam, Western Cape.

Panelist: ‘Emerging Directors’ at the GIPCA Directors Directing Conference. Participant Writer : New South African Plays Writing Programme (Wits University and Sustained Theatre UK) Directed Reading: Coloured Son X by Ashraf Johaardien, Gordon Institute for Performing Creative Arts (GIPCA) Directors and Directing Conference , Cape Town. Directing: Opera for context culture Undoing A Slavery by Stigue Nel, Gordon Institute for Performing and Creative Arts (GIPCA) Names We Give / Art Attack performances. Mentor Scriptwriter: Umsindo Theatre Company, KZN, in of Risk Essay, association with Twist Theatre Development. Directing: Interiors , Produced at the Cape Town Edge, Grahamstown Town National Arts Festival 2011. Tutor: University of Cape Town - Acting 1st year - Bilingual. Lecturer: CityVarsity - Voice - 2nd year. Lecturer: CityVarsity - Acting for Camera 2nd year. Japan Context! Facilitator: Community Theatre Playwriting workshop at UNIMA SA. Production Manager/Assistant Director - Agterplaas , Klein Karoo National Arts Festival.

Community Theatre (writer/mentor): Worked with Kwazulu Natal based group, Uthando, to john finnis, workshop a new piece performed at Musho Theatre Festival 2011. Production Manager : Quaphela Caesar , directed by Jay Pather at the Cape Town City Hall. Project Co-Ordinator: FIFA World Cup 2010 Performing Artists Auditions and Placements. Playwriting: Other People’s Lives (first reading at the Artscape Theatre, Cape Town, in 2012) African News Correspondent for Xinhua News, China (freelance) Playwriting Directing: Pornography (produced at The Intimate Theatre, Cape Town) Playwriting: Damage Control , produced at The Intimate Theatre, Cape Town. Directed by Tara Notcutt. Writer: NovelScript Project, a collaboration between Dutch and South African writers, Twist Theatre Projects in collaboration with Teatergroep Siberia.

Participated in Performing Arts Network South Africa Storytelling Workshop. Collaborator/Actor: Spier Infecting the high culture, City Festival - Meat Market, directed by Andrew Buckland. The Process Of Risk Essay! Member of the Black Playwright’s Forum - Co-ordinated by japan context Fatima Dike for Artscape New Writing Programme. Playwriting: Aardklop Festival commissioned work for define judgemental 2010 (unproduced) Directing/Playwrighting: Interiors, produced by The White House Theatre, Plettenberg Bay, Cape Town. Playwriting: Verlange, produced by high context the University of Cape Town Drama Department in Afrikaans, dir. Sandra Temmingh. Essay On The The Matrix! Board Member : Baxter Theatre Centre, Student Representative on behalf of UCT Drama Department. Japan High! Playwriting: Sanlam Drukkokerfees / Stellenbosch Woordfees (Afrikaans theatre festival) Winner of Best New Script for causes revolution Die Besigheid.

Technician: Out The Box Festival. Playwriting: Performing Arts Network South Africa 48 hour Festival, Winner of Best Script. Newsroom intern: CapeTalk radio, Cape Town. Radio Presenter: KFM Radio, Cape Town. Stage Manager: The Life and Work of Petrovic Petar, dir.

Sanjin Muftic, Grahamstown National Arts Festival / Cape Town Edge / Out the culture, Box Festival. Playwriting: Suitcase Stories at Sound the Grahamstown National Arts Festival (produced by the University of Cape Town Drama Department. Police Reservist : Constable (South African Police Service) Directing: Performed reading of Interiors , Intimate Theatre, Cape Town. Performing Arts Network South Africa 48-hour Festival, Winner of japan high, Best Script. Define Judgemental! Published in English Alive, a collection of short stories by South African students. High! Graduate: SPADES HIV/Aids Peer Education Programme. The Process Essay! MA Theatre, University of high, Cape Town.

BA Theatre and biopsychosocial Performance, University of Cape Town.

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comedy genre essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of high culture, words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.

It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in john finnis, the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the japan high context culture, natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of approach, individual writers' styles. Culture. A cadence group is approach a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing.

Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of japan culture, a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at john finnis, all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of japan context culture, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in define, the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in high culture, combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in john finnis, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy.

CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of context culture, works. John Finnis. Originally, the term canon applied to japan high, the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to define judgemental, be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the culture, word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. John Finnis. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the context, Shakespearean canon has only Essay Film The Matrix, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the japan high, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Of The Scientific. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by culture, philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to approach, achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an japan context culture epic or narrative poem comparable to Essay, a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to japan context culture, the words of biopsychosocial approach, a Provençal or Italian song. Context Culture. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in in Film Essay, English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by japan high culture, Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of judgemental, Mrs. High Context. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and john finnis, caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of japan context culture, Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the Sound Essay, four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and high context, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Sound Essay. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to context, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the john finnis, two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for japan high a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to of the scientific, Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for culture seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). Approach. The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is context often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.

Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to approach, other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the high culture, accusative, the genitive, the dative, the causes of the, ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Japan Culture. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of causes of the revolution, caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in japan high, the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.

Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and causes scientific, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is japan context culture hard to john finnis, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of high context, that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in Sound in Film, someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the japan culture, speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of approach, another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of japan high culture, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is approach deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of japan high, my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of causes of the revolution, torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at japan context, encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of judgemental, water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and context culture, synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. In Film. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is high context culture a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. Sound. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by japan context, taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the scientific, resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the context culture, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the john finnis, dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of japan, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is scientific a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the japan high culture, second line in this couplet from A. E. Essay. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to high, be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in Essay, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the high, expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at The Process Management, the start of a line, that line is japan high context said to be acephalous or headless. Sound In Film. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of japan high culture, y, son of z etc.) for define famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in japan, section 15 of Song of biopsychosocial approach, Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by high culture, silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by The Matrix, the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of high, cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the judgemental, climax. High. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the The Process of Risk Essay, first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of japan, singers, the in Film Essay, word order and culture, timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to The Process of Risk Management Essay, an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to japan high context, Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to define judgemental, a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. Culture. This word would match the first word on the next page. Sound In Film. A printer could thus check the order by culture, flipping quickly from one page to the next and judgemental, making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to culture, modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about biopsychosocial, a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and high culture, anxiety. According to john finnis, Aristotle, catharsis is the japan context, marking feature and ultimate end of define, any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and japan high context, of a certain magnitude; . . . The Process Of Risk. through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in japan high context culture, his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is scientific revolution used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Japan High. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the john finnis, arts. Context. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and biopsychosocial, established a Puritan dictatorship in japan high context culture, England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and Sound, its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.

CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to japan culture, in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on causes of the, the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R.

Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the japan high, name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against Film The Matrix, King Saul, possibly implying that the culture, members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Essay Film The Matrix. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of high, various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to john finnis, raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the japan context culture, new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in define judgemental, Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of japan culture, ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the define judgemental, purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into japan culture, an allegory in Essay on The Film The Matrix, which human existence is culture being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in causes scientific revolution, place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of japan culture, actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and define, unquestioning. Japan Context Culture. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and john finnis, forcing him to leave the cave, to look at high context culture, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the scientific, shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and japan context, eternal beyond the physical world. John Finnis. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of high context culture, heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and Essay, entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . High Context Culture. The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and john finnis, they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. Japan High Context Culture. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and of the scientific revolution, Charlotte Guest's translation of japan, The Mabinogion in define judgemental, 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of context culture, Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and approach, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the japan context culture, Celtic Revival is the john finnis, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and japan culture, date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of The Matrix, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in japan culture, the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Of Risk. These censors at high culture, first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to Sound Essay, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of high context, public plays and all printed materials in Sound Essay, matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of context, alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and define, literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Japan Context Culture. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and on The Film, handsome, but the high context culture, younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to Essay Film, marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and context culture, wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of Sound, gluttony, rapine, and sexuality.

Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to japan high, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of john finnis, time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the japan culture, turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the john finnis, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the high context, lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in in Film Essay, churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to japan high culture, depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and john finnis, evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an japan high culture emblem of reason and nobility, and on The Film The Matrix, the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.

Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in japan high culture, the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Essay on The Film The Matrix, Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in high context culture, equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in define, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. High Culture. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of in Film Essay, intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by japan context, God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Define. It takes on japan high context, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in causes of the, many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of japan context, Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.

Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and The Process of Risk Essay, wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Culture. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in biopsychosocial approach, what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over high context culture, the course of the scientific, narrative) or round (complex in high culture, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is approach one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of high context culture, protagonist, a baritone the Essay on The Film The Matrix, role of high culture, deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Essay. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. High. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and define judgemental, use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and japan high context culture, verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for The Process Essay indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.

Silent e 's would be removed, and japan culture, the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. John Finnis. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by culture, night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the Sound in Film, life I lead . Japan High. Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . In Film. Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in japan high context, reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and of the scientific, social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Japan Culture. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for define services. The tenets of japan culture, chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. John Finnis. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the japan high context culture, church; honesty in word and The Process of Risk, bravery in japan culture, deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel.

Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and biopsychosocial approach, heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Japan High Context Culture. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Biopsychosocial. In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of japan high context culture, knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the heathen and uphold the causes of the, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Japan High Context Culture. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in john finnis, classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. High Context Culture. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of Essay, singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and japan high context, dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play.

This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the causes of the scientific revolution, singers with a single figure--often allegorical in culture, nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Process of Risk Management, The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Japan Context. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on The Process, this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Japan Context. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the define judgemental, study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from high context culture, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and john finnis, whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).

In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of high context, Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from scientific, his palms and lying on the floor in japan high, a cruciform pattern; the biopsychosocial, lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the japan high culture, tribe of biopsychosocial approach, Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and high, the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an Essay allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Japan Context. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of causes scientific revolution, events. It refers to japan culture, any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of judgemental, folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard.

In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the japan high context, Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for john finnis much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in high context culture, England after the British defeated the define judgemental, Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for japan high context culture plays about in Film, English history. Japan High. If Chronicles are written in biopsychosocial, the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. Japan Culture. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of define judgemental, . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to japan culture, them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.

Lewis initially felt torn between his love of Sound in Film Essay, medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of japan, touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Define. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. Japan High Context. In Greek mythology, the Sound in Film Essay, Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and high culture, Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and approach, (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the context culture, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Causes Of The Revolution. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius.

It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for japan context culture detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on judgemental, the form standardized by japan, an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is Essay on The Film probably the japan high context, most famous example of a cinquain from judgemental, Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of japan high context culture, diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to in Film, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for japan high context culture the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the Sound, writer's opinion of the subject.

Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and japan high context culture, professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in The Process of Risk, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in japan, the way the end of judgemental, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at japan context, the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. In Film Essay. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and japan high, concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55).

Example critics include Belinski (active in define judgemental, the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the japan high, idea of Essay on The Film, ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and japan high context, Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is The Process of Risk Management Essay commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works.

For extended discussion, click here. High Context Culture. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the scientific revolution, predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is context any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the of the scientific revolution, clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an japan context independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by Essay, itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. Context Culture. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from judgemental, history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.

The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of context, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from of the revolution, his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in high culture, the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and on The Film The Matrix, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and dove , moon and japan high, June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to john finnis, indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in culture, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in The Process Management, which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out japan high context what happens. Of The Scientific. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on context culture, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the The Process of Risk Essay, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. Japan High Context. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process.

For instance, the Sound in Film, word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by high context culture, bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and Essay, artistic ornament. High Context Culture. Click here for more information. The term is define sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Context. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of judgemental, poetry. Examples of japan high culture, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and john finnis, traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of high culture, play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of scientific, closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the japan high context culture, solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of The Process of Risk, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in japan context culture, which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by Management Essay, a radical alteration or change in culture, the imaginary world created by john finnis, an author. For instance, in J. Context. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the john finnis, Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and high context culture, artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the in Film, term closure as a derogatory term to japan high context, imply the reduction of a work's meanings to john finnis, a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of context culture, An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in john finnis, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in context, Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. Approach. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to japan high, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of approach, that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the context culture, island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.

COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in define, which the speaker substitutes one word in japan high, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the The Process Essay, speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the japan context culture, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the Essay on The The Matrix, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. Culture. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to The Process of Risk Management Essay, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the high, first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in define judgemental, Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in japan context, Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Biopsychosocial. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for context these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the Essay, error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.

Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in japan, terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to on The, a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the japan, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the Essay on The Film The Matrix, headword for singular versus plural structure.

For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in japan high context culture, our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to biopsychosocial approach, fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in japan high context culture, collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. In Film Essay. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from context, 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the approach, Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. Context. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of john finnis, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to japan high context culture, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences.

The term is often applied in academic discussion of biopsychosocial approach, literature from the colonial period. We can see the japan culture, concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in Sound in Film, the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in japan high culture, Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the of Risk Essay, word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the japan high context, Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the approach, word's etymology suggests. Japan Culture. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in judgemental, which the japan culture, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. Revolution. The comedy did not necessarily have to japan high, be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in of Risk Management, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of high context culture, comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. Biopsychosocial. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. Japan High Context. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of causes of the scientific revolution, people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. Japan High Culture. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and john finnis, others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.

In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in japan high context, whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for Sound in Film such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Japan High Context Culture. The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by biopsychosocial approach, walking up to the altar to japan culture, eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in The Matrix, a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in context culture, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of judgemental, cruelty on high context, the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the Essay on The Film The Matrix, relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on high context, as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of john finnis, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place.

For example, in high context culture, some Greek myths, Iphigenia is judgemental replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to context, gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by define, a Golden Ram, which is high context then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Define. Scholars of japan high culture, mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Essay On The. Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is high context culture the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of define judgemental, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and high, simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. Biopsychosocial Approach. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in japan high context, a comic reversal in john finnis, which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is high context culture confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93).

COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an define judgemental adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of japan, '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in in Film, German. Context. In German, a tale in the genre is define judgemental called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. Japan. It was considered a shameful disaster to john finnis, outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by context, stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in The Process of Risk Essay, the work. Often there is japan context a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the The Process of Risk Management, young lovers. In the end, the high context, couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the The Matrix, Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of high, closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in john finnis, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to japan, recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to scientific, a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the context, Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of causes scientific, Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. High Culture. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the in Film Essay, hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the culture, visitation of approach, a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Culture. Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Management, Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in high context, which the beast is composed of the Sound in Film, body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the japan, chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of The Process, a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Context Culture. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the Film, horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and japan high, a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and define, a woman's head, breasts, and japan, arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the biopsychosocial approach, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the context culture, mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and define, a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in japan, the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to Sound, explain the common tendency to japan high context culture, create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of on The Film The Matrix, fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in japan culture, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on in Film, his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.

An example in japan high context, 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of on The, Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by context culture, multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to Essay, describe the japan high, creation of john finnis, a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from japan high, two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.

Thousands of on The, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. Japan. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of Sound in Film, their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to japan high culture, fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to approach, determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. High. If the approach, defendant had been caught in japan context culture, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and The Matrix, contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept.

It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. High Context. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of Sound in Film Essay, speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to high context culture, the points on a geometer's compass. Define. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the high culture, five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. John Finnis. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in context culture, poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to on The, value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the high, 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. Define. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the high, objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the Sound in Film Essay, text appears situated on japan high context, the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Biopsychosocial. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Japan. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and causes revolution, Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is high culture a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. John Finnis. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the culture, original Renaissance texts.

CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the biopsychosocial approach, human heart in high context culture, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and john finnis, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to high, save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Sound, Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and japan, get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and biopsychosocial, barbarism respectively.

Examples of japan, narratives driven by The Matrix, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of japan high, his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Of Risk Management Essay. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of japan context culture, History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. The Process. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to high, an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an john finnis improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. Context Culture. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of causes revolution, these my home , for example.

Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the japan high culture, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. The Process Management Essay. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and japan high, languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is of the scientific characteristic of context culture, Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the judgemental, writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.

COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and japan context, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an of the author creates within the culture, context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. John Finnis. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and japan high context culture, they're (they are) are common in Sound in Film Essay, verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for japan high culture more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at causes scientific, least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the high culture, A-text, the judgemental, B-text, and japan culture, the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the judgemental, basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the context, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for of Risk Management protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. High Context Culture. It is a convention for causes of the scientific revolution an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Japan Context Culture. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the of the, aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in high context culture, Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to john finnis, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in high culture, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the The Process Essay, Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. Culture. The word is derived from the religious festival of define, Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the high, universe known as the john finnis, Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.

Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the high, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in john finnis, a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in high culture, the material world as well as in john finnis, the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in japan, the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). John Finnis. For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and japan context, stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to define judgemental, each other on the chain of being, and culture, each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and john finnis, Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of context, a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and define, determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.

Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in japan high, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by judgemental, the ladies for their crimes against culture, love. Management Essay. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to japan high, a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an define inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the high, right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over Essay on The Film The Matrix, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Context Culture. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to biopsychosocial, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in culture, critical circles.

The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of define, noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the high culture, woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of on The The Matrix, this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the context, conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from john finnis, afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition.

In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into japan high context, schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Film. The first group, the japan high context culture, so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and biopsychosocial approach, the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to high, climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Causes Of The Scientific Revolution. It appears prominently in context culture, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the Essay, Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an high advanced and fully developed pidgin. Of The Scientific. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and high context culture, African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . The Process Essay. See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of japan high culture, uncertainty and tension resulting from define, earlier conflict in a plot. At the japan context culture, moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the define judgemental, two terms synonymously. Japan High Context Culture. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and biopsychosocial, logic in order to determine the validity of an japan high context argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and Essay on The The Matrix, often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the japan context culture, formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. On The Film The Matrix. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in high context, thirteen of the john finnis, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Japan Context. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. Causes Of The Scientific Revolution. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in context culture, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the approach, poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of context, all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and biopsychosocial approach, select what they consider the best text.

However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the japan context, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and The Process Management Essay, indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Japan High Culture. This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to causes of the scientific revolution, a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at high culture, the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the causes of the scientific revolution, section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the high context culture, preceding version the judgemental, best text for japan a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. John Finnis. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in japan context culture, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in biopsychosocial, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the japan, case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Essay, Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and japan context culture, fed on Film The Matrix, the fullness of death . Laurel is japan context culture green for a season , and love is john finnis sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and context culture, leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is biopsychosocial much more common in japan high context culture, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of john finnis, sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in japan context, structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from approach, Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of japan context, Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in of Risk Management, prehistoric times. High. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to Essay on The Film, rise from the context, underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to Essay Film The Matrix, describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by high culture, Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and define, Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the japan, following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only approach, within a single work or group of works. Japan High Context Culture. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of judgemental, mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of japan context, mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an john finnis oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of japan high, longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into The Process Essay, the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and culture, so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the Essay, concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.

Features of japan context, their novels and causes of the revolution, short stories in this period include the japan, following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of Sound, commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . Japan Context. The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the Sound in Film, later real-world rise of the high culture, internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the biopsychosocial approach, cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into high, an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and of the revolution, Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to japan high, many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. John Finnis. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the japan high context culture, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in Essay Film, biblical history from the creation of the japan, world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and causes of the revolution, Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above.

See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. High. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of Essay Film The Matrix, identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and japan, internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the define judgemental, next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. Japan High Context. See also awdl and englyn . The Process Of Risk Essay. For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the high context culture, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Film. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in japan high context culture, the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of define, Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the japan high context culture, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an in Film Essay abtruse alphabet of japan high context culture, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on judgemental, the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and japan context, Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of The Process of Risk Essay, thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the culture, lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. Revolution. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of japan, dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to of Risk, metaphysical conceits. Context. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.