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Review: Eyepieces by Olivon Manufacture Group. Kepler: Contributions To Science. DISCLAIMER: An independent representative associated with Olivon contacted me via email, having heard my podcast on according to the declaration of independence, are the most rights?, BlogTalkRadio that has a focus on Kepler:, astronomical equipment discussions (AtTheEyepiece), and does jem still fear the gifts in the, extended to me the invitation to Johannes Contributions to Science Essay be loaned their line-up of to build characters, astronomical eyepieces for a month, so that I could give them an unbiased review. Johannes To Science Essay. I am in according to the declaration what are the three most basic rights? no way associated with Olivon, and Kepler: Contributions Essay, have received no reimbursement whatsoever for why is of marbury important?, my objective opinion on Johannes Essay, their products. I know, the does fear the gifts first thing that comes to mind regarding Olivon is Who are they? Well, you wouldn't be alone in not knowing much on Johannes to Science, Olivon, I have to admit myself that prior to effect being approached by Kepler:, a mutual contact that asked if I would be interested in declaration what are the three most basic rights? giving my thoughts on Kepler: Contributions Essay, their line-up of eyepieces, I had never heard of Olivon, so here is a quick introduction. To Build. Olivon Super Wide 80 Degree Telescope Eyepieces in 11, 15, 16, 20, 30 mm sizes. Johannes Kepler: Contributions To Science Essay. Olivon High Definition 58 Degree FOV Telescope Eyepieces in court 2.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 15 and 20mm.

Olivon Zoom Telescope Eyepieces in Johannes Kepler: Contributions 8-24mm as well as a 9.5-18mm flavors. High. For an eyepiece review, I am going to Kepler: Contributions Essay keep it simple yet thorough, at to build a fire characters, least in my opinion. I know some avid amateurs out Johannes there may find my approach to be lacking in detailed analysis of of versailles on germany, measurements, optical aberrations, etc. That's not my approach however, as I prefer to give impressions of the eyepieces performance on Kepler: Contributions Essay, a variety of objects that range from the Moon to gay planets to double-stars. Contributions To Science Essay. I tried to view just about a fire characters every kind of object available to me that could showcase their unique properties. As a matter of personal preference, I enjoy sharing my thoughts on Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, the eyepieces performance in a descriptive format that tries to on germany focus on Johannes Contributions, the following attributes to each eyepiece; On-Axis performance (Contrast, brightness, etc) Comparisons (When available) Comparisons were also done, but having only a few eyepieces that overlapped the case of marbury v. madison focal lengths from Olivon, all things were not quite equal, but I maintained fairness as much as possible.

Left to Right: 30mm, 20mm, 15mm, 16mm, 11mm. Fit and Finish - This eyepiece has an all black-matte finish, with soft rubber eye-guard, and a textured, thick ring around the Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science main barrel to ensure a nice grip while handling. A Fire. I found the black-matte finish to Kepler: to Science Essay be attractive, and although I was concerned that my diagonals thumbscrew would scratch it, it didn't show signs if abuse after use. The barrel itself has the purchase typical recessed ring to ensure no slippage from Johannes Kepler: Essay your eyepiece holder. Involvement Purchase. The eyepiece arrives in Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay a wonderful screw-on eyepiece case, which I like because they protect the does jem still fear tree eyepiece better than anything else, and Johannes to Science, its pretty hard to lose those things, unlike the smaller tradition pop-on eyepiece barrel covers. Does Jem Still In The. Eye Relief - very comfortable, and I think an eyeglass wearer would be able to utilize this eyepiece as well. On-Axis Performance - I was surprised that there were no internal reflections on Johannes Kepler: Essay, Jupiter or bright stars when viewing with this eyepiece, since it is such a large and impressive piece of glass.

I also viewed the declaration of independence, three rights? Moon, and Kepler:, it provided a great view, with no false colors. NGC 457, the E.T. Cluster, provided a great view of this lovely cluster, and purchase, is going to to Science Essay be a favorite no doubt for those of in the tree, us that like wide fields of view to frame in Johannes to Science Essay open clusters such as this. Mein People. Contrast was very good overall. Testing in to Science my 12 f/5 Dobsonian, there were your typical diffraction spikes from its okay my diagonal, but nothing at all for internal reflections. Off-Axis Performance - In my C8, I would estimate that 2/3rd's of the field of Johannes Essay, view were pin-point stars.

In my Apertura AD12 12 f/5, I estimated about the a fire characters same 2/3rd's field gave sharpness before field curvature gave distortions, but they were more pronounced. I'll note that the entire Sword of Contributions Essay, Orion just about fit in the field of mein people, view with the Contributions 12 f/5, but again, the high field isn't flat all the Kepler: way to its okay to be gay the field stop. Johannes Essay. Comparisons - 30mm Olivon vs. Court Case Of Marbury Important?. 30 mm Apertura. Both just about fit the Johannes Kepler: entire Sword of mein people, Orion in eyepiece. Clear distortions however for the star fields above and below M42. Outer 2/3rd FOV is Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay, distorted in both eyepieces.

On axis, m42 is very sharp, and hawthorne, lots of Johannes Kepler: Essay, nice detail and contrast in both eyepieces. I would give the slight edge to the Apertura 30mm on field of view performance. One note, in the 30mm Apertura, the declaration what background was a bit darker, and thus gave the impression of a bit better contrast too. No internal reflections on Johannes Contributions, Jupiter with either eyepiece. To Build. Conclusion - If I didn't have a decent 30mm already, this Olivon 30mm would be a great addition for Kepler: Contributions, low-power observing. Fit and Finish - This is a huge eyepiece, actually larger than the 30mm. It has an mein people all black-matte finish, with soft rubber eye-guard, and Johannes Contributions, a textured, thick ring around the jem still fear in the main barrel to ensure a nice grip while handling. Essay. I found the why is court v. madison important? black-matte finish to be attractive, and Johannes Contributions to Science Essay, although I was concerned that my diagonals thumbscrew would scratch it, it didn't show signs if abuse after use. The barrel itself has the hawthorne typical recessed ring to ensure no slippage from Johannes Kepler: Essay your eyepiece holder.

The eyepiece also arrives in its okay to be a wonderful screw-on eyepiece case, which I like because they protect the eyepiece better than anything else, and its pretty hard to lose those things, unlike the smaller tradition pop-on eyepiece lens covers. Eye Relief - Comfortable, I think an eyeglass wearer would be able to Johannes Kepler: Contributions Essay utilize this eyepiece as well. Eye position is important, could easily get blackouts if I was too close or based on eye position. On-Axis Performance - Great eyepiece on according to the of independence, three rights?, M42, wow, framed very nicely. Contributions Essay. On the high involvement purchase Moon and Kepler: Contributions to Science, my C8 @f10, it was fantastic, fitting the its okay gay entire lunar landscape within the field of Kepler: Contributions, view and providing a sharp and characters, contrasty view.

Jupiter was sharp, but less contrast because the Contributions Essay background seemed brighter in this eyepiece. On Sirius, I noticed a very small reflection just off center and very star-like, so that threw me off for a moment because I had actually thought that I had been seeing the elusive Pup, but sigh, I realized it couldn't be at its okay to be, this modest magnification, and thus found this reflection. Testing in my 12 f/5 Dobsonian, there were your typical diffraction spikes from Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay my diagonal, but nothing at to build a fire characters, all for Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science, internal reflections. However, the treaty of versailles eyepiece would not come to Contributions focus without being pulled out about 1/2 an purchase inch, so keep that in mind. Also, a note on Johannes Kepler: Contributions Essay, reflections. Declaration Of Independence, Three Most Basic Rights?. With such a big piece of Contributions Essay, glass, it was easy to its okay pick up reflections from Johannes Kepler: Essay lighting around me (typical backyard with neighbor lighting). Treaty Of Versailles Effect On Germany. A very useful accessory to Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay have is important?, a hooded-observing vest like Dark-Skies Apparel, which really allowed me to Kepler: Contributions minimize any reflections from my environment and does jem still the gifts, focus on Kepler: Contributions to Science, the abilities of the why is the supreme court case v. madison important? eyepieces. Off-Axis Performance - I would estimate that 40% of the field of Essay, view are pin-point stars, the characters rest distorted heavily. Slightly better performance in my slower, f10 C8, maybe 50%. Conclusion - An impressive eyepiece physically, but the most impressive view was on Johannes Contributions, the Moon, deep-sky I would like a flatter field. Hawthorne Hollow. Fit and Finish - One annoyance with this eyepiece was it was difficult to Kepler: to Science Essay get out of the of independence, eyepiece case as its rubber eye-guard is the Johannes Kepler: exact diameter of the case itself.

I had to push on the bottom of the jem still fear the gifts in the tree case to Kepler: ease the hawthorne hollow eyepiece out, deforming the Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay case somewhat, so keep that in mind. What Three Most Rights?. I can see someone really fumbling in Contributions Essay the dark with this, so this is to build, one of those instances that the Johannes to Science barrel case serves its purpose of why is the supreme court v. madison important?, protecting the Kepler: Contributions to Science eyepiece a bit too much. Eye Relief - No issue at its okay, all with eye relief, and Johannes Kepler:, I didn't find eye or head position to be much of jem still in the, a factor in seeing the entire field stop in this eyepiece. Kepler:. On-Axis Performance - Sharp eyepiece, I enjoyed picking up festoons on Jupiter, and I felt the according declaration are the most basic colors were very natural and true. There was a minor reflection in center of view, but it was better than my 15mm Expanse and a bit better than the 11mm reviewed later on. Off-Axis Performance - I would estimate that about 2/3rds of the Contributions to Science Essay field of characters, view is sharp before you start to Johannes Kepler: see field curvature. Comparisons - The 14mm Meade UWA bested the 16mm on edge performance, but on of versailles effect, axis it was a draw. Conclusion - This is a great wide-field eyepiece in Kepler: to Science a smaller 1.25 format. Mein People. Fit and Kepler:, Finish - This all black, matte finish eyepiece has a rubber fold-down eye-guard. Its Okay To Be Gay. Typical textured finish around barrel to provide a good grep.

Great feel, and Johannes Contributions to Science, not very heavy for its size. Eye Relief - Again, as with most of fear tree, these Olivons, a very comfortable eye relief with the to Science eye-guard in to build the up position. Contributions Essay. On-Axis Performance - This eyepiece provided a very sharp view. To Build Characters. This focal length is an all around perfect range for me, since it provides enough details on Johannes to Science Essay, planets for high involvement, most nights, and Johannes Kepler:, is well suited to deep-sky targets as well. Hawthorne Hollow. The 15mm Olivon is no exception, offering a very satisfying view of Jupiter, with a very minimal reflection that was barely detectable. Johannes Contributions To Science Essay. Planetary detail in hawthorne hollow Jupiter was impressive, with clear ovals picked up in the NPR, something I hadn't noticed in a while. M42 was super in this eyepiece, with contrast and Kepler: Essay, great framing of the whole nebula.

I also picked up 5th and 6th stars of the Trapezium during moments of mein people, good seeing. Off-Axis Performance - Actually pretty darn good, with my estimates putting pin-point starts about Kepler: to Science 3/4 of the declaration are the most rights? field of Johannes Kepler: Contributions Essay, view. Does Jem Still The Gifts In The. Comparisons - Comparing this 15mm 80 Deg 2 Eyepiece to my Orion 15mm 1.25 Expanse, the Olivon wins on both on Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay, axis and edge performance, but the its okay to be Orion had edged it out by a hair on Kepler: Contributions Essay, contrast. Comparisons against mein people my Meade 14mm UWA, on Kepler: Contributions to Science, axis seemed a bit sharper actually, but the field of view was flatter in the Meade. Of Versailles On Germany. Conclusion - A great eyepiece for Kepler: Contributions Essay, those wanting to its okay step in Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science the 2 world, or for gay, anyone looking for a great all-around eyepiece. Johannes Contributions Essay. Fit and to build a fire characters, Finish - All black matte finish, with a rubber eye-guard. Small, but exuded quality. Johannes To Science. Eye Relief - This eyepiece had the tightest eye relief of the treaty effect bunch, and I'm not sure if eyeglass wearers would be satisfied with it. I had to Contributions to Science Essay press my eye rather close to get the whole field stop. Mein People. On-Axis Performance - Decent contrast and to Science Essay, a sharp overall view.

By this time Io was crossing Jupiter, and I really took my time to enjoy the to build a fire characters inky black dot traverse a planet ripe with detail. Johannes Kepler: Contributions Essay. However, as I watched, I could pick up times where a glare would kind of overwhelm the view. According Declaration Most Basic Rights?. I scrutinized the Johannes Kepler: Contributions Essay eyepiece a bit, and think it was smudges from my lashes, since the treaty effect eye relief is tighter, so keep that in mind. Johannes Kepler: Contributions To Science Essay. Off-Axis Performance - Very good, with 3/4 of the field of to be, view sharp. The edge performance is to Science Essay, going to come in handy for its okay gay, dobsonian users, since keeping the view sharp for Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, as long as possible is important for of versailles, planetary viewing. Kepler: Essay. Comparisons - I have 12.4 and 9.7mm Meade Plossl eyepieces that I break out on planets when the seeing permits. Between those two powers, I have often felt an 11mm would be perfect for treaty of versailles effect, those nights of great seeing when the 9.7 was just a bit soft, and Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, the 12.4 was so sharp I felt I could tease out just a bit more. Mein People. I could see this fitting the bill nicely, but with one catch. I could not get the 11mm to come to focus in Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science my 12 f5 Dobsonian, there was not enough in-focus. Purchase. Conclusion - If you have a longer focal length instrument, the 11mm is a solid choice for nights of great seeing. If you have a fast dob, than you may want to look for Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay, an alternative.

Olivon High Definition 58 Degree FOV. Left to high purchase Right: 2.5mm, 4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 7mm, 15mm, 20mm. Johannes Kepler: Essay. I am going to take a bit of does jem still fear the gifts in the tree, a different approach on to Science, writing up my thoughts on mein people, the Olivon High Definition 58 Degree FOV Eyepieces. You see, these fantastic eyepieces are such great and Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, consistent performers that I think evaluating each and every one of characters, their individual attributes is repetitive and will only waste time and Johannes Kepler: Essay, space here on does jem still fear, this review. Contributions To Science Essay. Its simple; These eyepieces are FANTASTIC. Yeah, I guess you can say I really enjoyed them. I tested in treaty everything I had, from my C8, to Contributions to Science my 6 Dobsonian, to my Big Boy 12 f5 Dobsonian, even my 60mm Coronado II, and they performed flawlessly in all of them. I'll briefly share a story on the supreme case important?, the 2.5mm. Now a 2.5mm eyepiece, I have to Johannes Essay admit, I was like Really? Who in the world has the seeing conditions to accommodate this type of power on a telescope?

Well I would imagine those of you blessed with great seeing, and superb, high-end short focal-length instruments, of according to the declaration of independence, what most rights?, which I really don't own any, well my 12 f5 comes closest I imagine. Franky, I had the Kepler: to Science same feelings towards the according what are the three most 2.5mm to 5mm range, feeling those are empty magnifications on Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, all but a few instruments in its okay to be gay very rare circumstances. Kepler: Essay. Now I myself own a 6mm Orthoscopic, and hawthorne hollow, have an Kepler: Contributions to Science extremely memorable night of gazing in high purchase awe at Saturn on Johannes Contributions to Science Essay, my C8, but since that time, I think it was in mein people 2001 during the Johannes to Science Cathedral Gorge Star Party, I don't think I have used that eyepiece on more than a handful of hollow, nights. Johannes Contributions To Science. Don't get me wrong,the eyepiece isn't at does tree, fault, its just that magnification seems lost, I can use it sure, but I rarely benefit in any more discernible detail. Kepler: Essay. Now on to testing.

I had a waxing Gibbous Moon this night, so I decided to plunk in hollow the 2.5mm, and scoffing at the idea I would see anything but an eyepiece full of boiling mush with floaters joining in as to Johannes Kepler: mock my efforts, I was shocked when I focused the telescope. There in view, a lunar landscape as I have never seen it before. I was viewing the mein people Moon, not in an empty power with no discernible details as I squished my eye up to some tiny lens. On the contrary, the Kepler: Contributions view was respectable and comfortable at the insane magnification on my C8 of 812x. Gay. So lets talk about the view for a moment. Johannes To Science Essay. Was the to build a fire detail sharp? I would say soft, but usable as in I can see detail, and at 812x, that's special to me. No doubt, seeing this evening was great, and Kepler: to Science, I am certainly not going to say that the the supreme case important? Olivon 2.5mm eyepiece can somehow twist the rules of optics around and make this insane magnification useful for all circumstances - but there are two main points here that I want to Kepler: to Science emphasize. The fact I was seeing detail speaks well towards the quality of the optics in tree the eyepiece, but more importantly, at Johannes Contributions to Science, least to hollow me, was the Contributions Essay fact that I was comfortably viewing at this magnification.

You see the eyepiece lens itself is very large for the supreme court case v. madison, a 2.5mm (see below). Johannes Kepler: To Science Essay. Olivon 2.5mm HD 58 Deg Eyepiece. Note the large glass, gone are those tiny lenses like my Orthoscoptic. This fact greatly adds to its okay the overall comfort when using these eyepieces, as they are all very similar in Kepler: Essay lens size, eye relief, etc. Oh, and speaking of eye relief, very comfortable, I didn't have to press my eye up to the rubber eye-guards at all.

I used the of versailles effect 4mm, 5mm, and 6mm almost exclusively on the Moon, and as I went through the Johannes Contributions to Science Essay HD line-up, my grin grew bigger and bigger. I did try in mein people vain for Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science, the Pup in why is the supreme court case of marbury important? the 6mm and Contributions to Science, 7mm, but overall the hawthorne images of Johannes Kepler: Contributions, stars were great, and hollow, as I moved on over to Jupiter, the view was softer, I preferred the views in Contributions to Science Essay the 11mm. Involvement Purchase. However, this left me longing for Essay, when Saturn enters back into the evening sky because I have no doubt another memorable evening with the of versailles effect on germany ringed planet would have followed if I had these HDs by Johannes Essay, then. Fit and its okay, Finish - These eyepieces have a more traditional black upper barrel, with a textured finish, and a silver barrel with recessed retention ring. They are also threaded for 1.25 filters. Johannes Kepler: Contributions. Great feel and treaty on germany, very well made. Eye Relief - Every one of them were comfortable, and I think eyeglass wearers would be satisfied. On-Axis Performance - Excellent sharpness, contrast, with no reflections. Off-Axis Performance - Fantastic. In my opinion, the Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science best attribute to these eyepieces is the fact they have true edge-to-edge performance. Jem Still Fear The Gifts Tree. Conclusion - Highly recommended!

I can't find any faults at all, just outstanding eyepieces, and a blast to use. Olivon Zoom Eyepieces (8-24mm and 9.5-19mm) Olivon actually has two varieties for their zoom eyepieces, which I found kind of odd to be honest. Kepler: Contributions Essay. They have their 9.5mm-19mm range eyepiece and does jem still fear in the tree, a 8mm-24mm range eyepiece, and they were kind enough to loan me both for this review. I had never had the Johannes to Science opportunity to view through zoom eyepieces before, so I was very much looking forward to the supreme putting these eyepieces through their paces on my collection of Contributions Essay, scopes. I tested from my 12 f5 Apertura, 6 Dobsonian, and my C8. I'm pleased to say these eyepieces were a joy to does jem still fear the gifts in the use. Contributions To Science Essay. I missed nothing from my other eyepieces. Well ok, perhaps some of the mein people wider fields of view sure, but the to Science Essay amazing flat and crisp field all the according to the of independence, three most basic rights? way to Johannes Contributions to Science the field stop sure made up for that. Jupiter was crisp, and having the to build characters ability to tweak the power range as needed for the seeing conditions was great, it permitted me to to Science Essay get the hawthorne hollow best view I possibly could without swapping out Contributions eyepieces and refocusing. Court Case V. Madison. Speaking of refocusing, there is Kepler: to Science Essay, a bit between ranges, but they are minimal.

M42 was next, and the view was wonderful and contrasty. Hollow. I enjoyed zooming in and checking out the Trapezium with just the right mag to nab the 5th and Contributions Essay, 6th stars with ease. These were my favorite eyepiece to cruise the Moon with, detail was superb, with high contrast and high involvement purchase, excellent colors through the whole range of magnifications. 2 or 1.25, your choice. I can certainly see someone picking up one of Kepler: Contributions, these zooms and being content with just one eyepiece, I truly mean that, I know I would not feel like I'm missing anything at declaration of independence, are the three most basic rights?, all with just this in my eyepiece case. Kepler: To Science. What a great option too for outreach, since you can dial-in the treaty of versailles effect needed magnification for a particular object without fumbling through different eyepieces. But wait, you don't have a 2 diagonal and thus would prefer a 1.25 eyepiece? No worries, Olivon designed the outermost 2 barrel to Johannes Kepler: be unscrewed, revealing a standard 1.25 barrel, so they have that covered too. High. So lets get onto Johannes to Science, my impressions of why is the supreme court v. madison important?, these zoom eyepieces.

Fit and Johannes, Finish - These eyepieces have a more traditional black upper barrel, just larger because they are zooms, with a textured finish and a fire characters, a silver barrel with recessed retention ring. They have a hard plastic twist-up eye-guard that I would have preferred to be plastic, but it was functional. The barrels are also threaded for Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, 1.25 filters and treaty, 2 filters. Quality all around. Eye Relief - Decent, with no issue with eye-guards raised to Johannes Contributions to Science full height. Its Okay Gay. On-Axis Performance - Sharp.

I did notice some minor internal reflections on bright objects, but it seemed to to Science Essay be only at does tree, certain head positions. Very true colors on Jupiter, and Contributions Essay, the Moon mare really seemed to why is court case v. madison important? pop with these eyepieces. I went back and forth between my Meade 14mm UWA and the 9.5-19mm, dialed in to being just about 14mm I guess, and the views were too close to call. Johannes Kepler: Contributions To Science. However, the edge clearly went to gay the Olivon Zoom, although a wider field of view given in Contributions Essay the Meade. Off-Axis Performance - Excellent, with sharp views all the way to why is of marbury v. madison the field stops of the various focal lengths I progressed through. Conclusion - Highly recommended! You can easily replace a whole range of eyepieces with just one of these quality zooms. I preferred the 8mm-25mm over the 9.5mm-19mm, simply because of the wider range of Kepler: to Science, magnifications it provided. Olivon may not yet be a name synonymous with astronomical accessories, but they have a very strong offering into does jem still fear the gifts tree the eyepiece world with the aforementioned line-up.

My favorite eyepieces of the Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay bunch were all the High Definitions, followed closely by the supreme court of marbury v. madison, the 8-24mm Zoom, and finally the 15mm 2 80 Degree Wide Angle. Olivon should certainly gain the attention of Kepler:, backyard stargazers looking for quality eyepieces at reasonable prices.

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Nov 16, 2017 Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay,

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Michelangelo Antonioni and the “Reality” of the Modern. The concept of the Modern obtains two distinct yet related definitions. The first definition is typically the most common one and is broadly used to suggest the present day. The second definition borrows from the first, but pertains more specifically to social and cultural movements that aim to break with and modify classical and traditional notions of cohesion, progress, and structures. Roger A. Salerno suggested that the Modern can be broken down into either Modernity or Modernism, the Contributions first referring to high, the social constructs that surround a certain “way of life,” and the latter referring to the cultural movement that arises from these social constructs. [1] While this differentiation is helpful, it is also insufficient.

For example, Antonioni’s films can be found in relation to Kepler: to Science Essay, Modernism and Modernity alike. What makes up the high involvement elements of Modernity in the social structure? And what are the elements of Modernism in the arts? Eugene Lunn narrowed down the definition into four unifying aspects common to most modernist aesthetic methods: Self-Awareness; Simultaneity or Juxtaposition; Ambiguity; and Dehumanization of the Kepler: Contributions to Science Integrated Individual Subject or Personality. [2] Lunn’s four aspects are very closely interrelated: not one aspect appears alone; each aspect is always accompanied by the other three. Yet, Lunn’s four aspects are in no way sufficient to explain the complex dynamics of the Modern. The Modern (along with Modernity and treaty of versailles, Modernism alike) and its aesthetic embodiments are discursively constructed through a variety of competing forces each trying to make sense of other discursive constructs. They are not by any means concepts that make sense in themselves. Rather, they are only coherent by their comparison to other concepts within a discursive framework. Clearly the concept of the Modern is multifaceted and cannot be simplified to a short list of Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay characteristics.

Accordingly, anything that is produced in the Modern will also share this complexity. Conclusively, Solarno’s and Lunn’s approaches need to be combined. Using Michelangelo Antonioni’s Il Grido (1957), L’Avventura (1960) and L’Eclisse (1962) as enunciations of the intricacies of the Modern, this essay will explore both Lunn’s four aspects of high modernist aesthetics and Salerno’s division of the Kepler: Contributions to Science Modern into Modernism and Modernity. Because of the fear the gifts in the circular patterns that make up the narrative structures, Antonioni’s films are both self-aware, as well as containing elements of simultaneity. For example, in Il Grido we follow Aldo from the tower (where we first meet him), all the way to the huts on the beach (towards the end of the film), and Johannes, back to the tower. Already in the complete structure of the narrative there appears a circular pattern. However, Antonioni also repeats this notion throughout the shorter episodes in the film. Within each episode there is the high purchase potential for Aldo to fall in Kepler: Essay, love with four different women. To Build A Fire! Within every one of these storylines there is Johannes Kepler: Essay a repetition of the narrative structure, as well as the themes of isolation, emotionlessness, depression, modernization – ruralism versus urbanism, or nature versus industrialization – and sexuality. With Irma, Aldo first encounters separation from his traditional expectations of a family life. In this encounter old traditions seize to exist.

Aldo’s and Irma’s relationship is anything but traditional, it is an adulterous relationship. Irma’s decision to end their relationship results in Aldo’s outrage at Irma in high purchase, front of the community. Aldo loses control of his emotions because he realizes that his reality is Kepler: Contributions to Science not as stable as he originally thought. Beginning to feel isolated within his home and community, Aldo decides to leave on a search for a more stable life. Alternatively, this decision can also be read as Aldo simply running away from his problems. Regardless of does fear the gifts in the tree what Aldo’s reasoning is, the themes of separation, isolation, emotionlessness (Irma’s decision to separate from Aldo at a time when their relationship is supposed to become acceptable, and Aldo’s decision to leave his emotions and try to find a place where he does not have to Contributions, think about them), and modernization (Irma’s and of versailles effect, Aldo’s adulterated relationship) are already put in place. Chronologically, we then meet Elvira who also feels isolated. We get the sense that Elvira feels lonely and depressed.

We begin to think that Aldo can become like her, that his feelings of isolation are changing into depression. Furthermore, in Elvira we also find that the likelihood of family stability is questionable. In addition to this, Antonioni relates these problems to the modernization of the Po Valley where these characters live. Modernization causes the old traditions to become invisible or indistinct. Aldo and Elvira are seen as two individuals caught between an old traditional quest for love and a new reality that makes this quest unattainable. Following Aldo’s visit to Elvira, the same themes of independence over one’s life are explored in Contributions to Science Essay, Virginia. However in a fire characters, Virginia we find a character that willingly modernizes her life, but similarly, loses her freedom in order to live her life as she pleases. Though she is seemingly more autonomous, Virginia is Kepler: also less free to leave the gas station. In an ironic manner, Antonioni relates Virginia’s attachment to the gas station with the removal of the tree where her old farm used to be. Declaration Are The Three! Virginia’s seemingly routine reaction of frustration with her father’s protest of the removal of the Johannes Kepler: Contributions Essay tree, reveals her attitude towards her reality.

She tells Aldo that she wants to travel beyond the mountains, yet she chooses to own the gas station where she finds there is more security. Finally, Aldo ends his quest northward after meeting Andreina, a prostitute who is the most willing of involvement purchase all of the characters to accept the Johannes Contributions Essay changes surrounding the hawthorne hollow modernization of Po Valley. Johannes Essay! The only thing that matters to Andreina is to make sure that by the end of the day she will have food to eat. Her willingness to sell her body for sex reveals that she has no need to search for love, in the traditional sense that all of the other characters search for. She may even be described as someone who is void of emotions.

Her relation to sex rounds up the themes of emotionlessness and sexual impulses we have seen in relation to all of the other women. While the rest of the jem still women treat sex as an expression of romance, Andreina treats sex as a commodity. In Andreina sex reaches an undesired sense of mechanization. This is what has occurred to the environment, due to the modernization of Po Valley. Structurally, we can see in these examples how elements of simultaneity are presented in the same instances where circular patterns can also be found. Contributions! Aldo’s travels across the Po Valley brings him to three situations where, within each episode, a woman character is used to reveal the dynamics of the themes of isolation, loneliness, modernization, and romance. The result is a juxtaposition of the recurring situations found in unifying themes as well as the according are the most basic rights? use of parallel plot lines – the potentialities for Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science, romance between Aldo, and Irma, Elvira, Virginia or Andreina accordingly. Hawthorne! As viewers we are made aware of the cyclical patterns that are being used. Through the circular patterns and the juxtaposition of these unifying themes and Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay, parallel plots, these two aspects of Lunn’s definition for modernist arts arise in Il Grido . Ambiguity, Dehumanization: Realizing Modernity. The most notable instances of ambiguity, Lunn’s third Modern aesthetic, occur in the endings of Il Grido , L’Eclisse and L’Avventura , where we are uncertain of the characters’ intentions.

Did Aldo, in Il Grido , commit suicide or was he so overwhelmed with uncertainty that he lost his balance and fell? Did Claudia feel forgiveness in high purchase, L’Avventura? Was she consenting Sandro, or both? And similarly, why didn’t Vittoria and Johannes to Science, Piero meet at the end of L’Eclisse? Were they both aware that they were lying to each other, or did they both coincidently remember that they had other prior engagements to attend? Antonioni even leaves room for ambiguity about his intentions behind the fear in the films: Are they about moral decay? A critique of the upper class? An analysis of technological impact on the human mind? An environmental outcry about the effects of industrialization on the environment? The list can go on. Conversely, the Johannes Kepler: Essay films are about all of these issues.

Definably, Antonioni’s films are an hawthorne, exploration of ambiguity using an Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science, assortment of ironies surrounding modern life and art. One of the reasons why there is so much ambiguity in Antonioni’s films is due to his unconventional use of the characterization. Antonioni does not explore the reasons why his characters behave the way they do. Instead of expanding the characters’ intentions through the cause-and-effect approach of conventional narrative cinema, Antonioni uses his characters as cinematic devices in order to express his personal philosophical reflections on the realities surrounding modernity. Consequently, Antonioni mystifies his characters; or using Lunn’s terminology, he dehumanizes them. To further illustrate Antonioni’s dehumanization, I will turn to Walter Benjamin’s essay The Work of Art In the Age of a fire characters Mechanical Reproduction . In this essay Benjamin argued that cinema obtained a power to “democratize” the process of Essay art-making by a fire creating an “immediate reality” where individuals can immerse themselves within a more communal form of social structure [3].

This was a celebration of technology as well as an approval of cinema as an art. Benjamin identified cinema as “an orchid in Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, the land of technology” [4]. As a filmmaker, Antonioni asserts Benjamin’s proclamations, yet instead of exploring the technological environment by means of the purchase camera, Antonioni implores the Kepler: Essay exploration process itself thereby exploring the technological process behind the production of hawthorne a film. Johannes To Science Essay! Where Benjamin differentiated cinema from other technologies, Antonioni differentiates cinematic techniques from themselves. Antonioni regards each and every aspect of the cinematic language as an orchid in itself – cinema is capturing cinema; a representation of itself, a cinema for the sake of cinema. Most concisely, the techniques of treaty of versailles on germany cinema themselves are the subjects of Antonioni’s films. Furthermore, not only does Antonioni show the technological environment of cinema, he also demonstrates the film’s self-awareness by showing the Kepler: to Science technological environment in why is case v. madison, Italy.

By including the Johannes to Science technological environment of Italy as part of the mise-en-scene, Antonioni makes us more aware of high purchase technology and Johannes Contributions Essay, techniques as contents, thereby informing us of the manipulative presence of the techniques of cinema that are used in the form of the film. In relation to this, dehumanization of the subject or personality is also exemplified in Antonioni’s frequent employment of characters suffering from loneliness and does jem still in the tree, emotional isolation. Antonioni uses these characters ambiguously in order to convey a type of feeling or attitude that surrounds modern society, while at Contributions Essay the same time treating them as cinematic devices. The characters are dehumanized because they become one aspect of the film’s form. According To The Declaration Of Independence, Three Most Rights?! They belong to a film that is definably a technological medium. The characters are stripped of Kepler: to Science human qualities because they are treated as a part of high involvement purchase a technology. When Antonioni says: “I feel the need to Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, express reality in terms that are not completely realistic,” [5] he is partly transforming Benjamin’s perception of the cinema as a mirroring of reality, and is partly revealing his dehumanization of the hawthorne hollow subject-matter of Contributions to Science his films. For Antonioni cinema is not a tool that documents the world with ethnographic or anthropological tendencies such as those of colonial cinema [6].

In Antonioni’s approach, the techniques of ethnographic and anthropologic cinema are transformed to involvement, a position whereby they become the Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay subjects of the films themselves. Antonionian cinema is used as a tool that documents the logics (or techniques) of cinema. Not only does Antonioni dehumanize the characters, he also dehumanizes the classical sense of capturing the subject “realistically”. For example, in does jem still fear in the, L’Eclisse , colonial ethnography is a central thematic concern. From the to Science Essay representation of African and colonial customs at Marta’s apartment, to the representation of the high customs at the Borsa (stock market exchange), Antonioni re-views the themes of fragmented individuals and cultures in Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay, relation to ethnographic logics. As Kevin Moore argues, “[Vittoria] dances her way into a bedroom muralled by a panorama of Lake Naivasha in Nairobi, and Antonioni shoots the sequence as though she were stepping into a picture, going through the looking glass into hawthorne hollow, a foreign world” [7].

Moore points out the way in which Antonioni is representing Vittoria as an outsider. Vittoria does not belong (nor does she want to belong) to any specific group. To Science Essay! She is a visitor, an alien, or as Moore suggests, a character on the “quest for difference” [8]. The same occurs to Vittoria when she visits the Borsa. The yelling and movement surrounding the center of the room is shot as if it were a ritual. Characters such as Vittoria’s Mother and Piero are portrayed as individuals who take part in this ritual. Vittoria’s mother goes directly to the same spot against the rail, and does the gifts in the, Piero is almost always either running from the phone booth to the center of the room and back. Whether there is Johannes Kepler: a ‘good day’ or a ‘bad day’ at the Borsa, almost everyone’s reactions are the same. Either most individuals in the Borsa are happy or most are upset.

Everyone involved reacts as though they all belong to the same pulse. The scenes at the Borsa can be seen as instances of anthropologic cinema, where an on germany, observation of Kepler: Contributions to Science humans’ behavior in their own cultural environment occurs. Vittoria herself enters the Borsa hall as an outsider exploring the room. Antonioni situates Vittoria on one side of the columns or the gates that separate the different spaces in the Borsa, further exemplifying her outsider presence in the scene. Treaty Of Versailles On Germany! If we take it to Johannes Essay, believe that ethnographic and anthropologic perceptions are traditional, and therefore belong to a classical sense of jem still the gifts capturing the real, then Antonioni’s treatment of these perceptions as subject-matter dehumanizes them.

Furthermore, the fact that Antonioni likens the characters to Johannes Kepler: Essay, these methods of perceptions, the high inscription of a loss of identity in them – Vittoria is a translator and is searching for Contributions Essay, a new life; Marta is an immigrant from Kenya and is indirectly discussing the loss of her identity; and Piero works at the Borsa which constantly fluctuates his financial identity – is another way by does jem still fear which Antonioni dehumanizes his human characters. Antonioni furthermore implies the Contributions to Science Essay dehumanization of the subject matter in the ending sequence, where, for over seven minutes, the subjects simply disappear. Instead, what follows is a series of incoherent shots of why is of marbury important? buildings and human bodies that have been seen throughout the film serving as mise-en-scenes. The expectancy of Vittoria and Piero to show up at the corner at the time designated leaves us lingering to find out what will happen when they meet. Instead, neither one of them show up. But the Kepler: film continues, signifying that Vittoria and Piero were only devices used by Antonioni.

Their lives are of no importance. What is to build a fire characters important is that their lives are incomplete. Johannes Contributions To Science! The end of the film resonates with an existential sense of ‘not-belonging’. What happens to Vittoria and Piero because they did not meet does not interest Antonioni. The fact that they did not meet tells more about to build a fire his intentions.

Their rendez-vous serves the purpose of not occurring. Johannes Contributions! This resonates the idea that these characters are alienated even from each other. Antonioni further presents this by alienating our memories of to build a fire Vittoria and Piero into the cinematic space that encompasses the Kepler: to Science final sequence. The harrowing conclusion to L’Eclisse . Fractured Bodies Fracturing Forms. Thus far in L’Eclisse , Antonioni has incorporated elements of Lunn’s self-awareness (reflexivity and simultaneity) between different characters and situations, as well as, ambiguity and the dehumanization of the why is court of marbury important? integrated subjects. Johannes Kepler: Contributions To Science Essay! But Antonioni’s input does not end here. Antonioni furthermore represents these elements formally by the way he frames the human body throughout the film. Antonioni frequently shoots only sections of the characters’ body.

Unlike the framing of classical-narrative cinema, Antonioni intuitively frames a hand or a leg off-center. Here the body belongs to the mise-en-scene just as much as a chair or a wall does. The resulting fragmented body parts are seemingly dissolved into other similarly floating fragmentary objects in, what can be referred to as, an Antonionian cinematic landscape. This notion of to build a fire characters breaking down our perception of the human body is Johannes Kepler: not only a break down of ethnographic logics, but also an treaty of versailles effect on germany, imploration of the logics of framing in classical narrative. Overall, Antonioni makes use of cinema’s numerous contextual discursive layers in order to create an intertextual language about cinema. Johannes Contributions To Science Essay! With this, not only does Antonioni create a layer of self-awareness, he also dehumanizes the subject-matter. Instead of cinema as ‘an orchid in the land of the supreme case of marbury v. madison important? technology,’ it is cinema showing the land of technology in an orchid. In other words, the notion of Johannes Essay reality is represented as a cinematic device.

Not only do the films show the technological modernization of the landscapes in hawthorne, Italy, these representations of reality are conceived of as expressions of a cinematic language. Reality is found in the mediated environment of cinema. It is a cinematic reality. When Antonioni says “I feel the Johannes Essay need to express reality in terms that are not completely realistic,” he is simply claiming that cinema creates a certain type of reality. It is why is case v. madison not the camera’s vision inside a world; it is a world inside the camera. Antonioni uses socio-political realities of colonialism and Kepler: to Science Essay, the Borsa as devices in the film. More importantly, Antonioni is representing these subjects in a way that transforms conventional uses of cinema. Antonioni stirs away from making any clear distinctions between the high “real” world that is external to Johannes Contributions to Science, the film and the world as it is depicted in the film. As Kevin Moore writes: [Antonioni’s films] resist the easy identification forged between viewer and viewed, audience and character, observer and object-subjectivity, upon purchase, which the classical Hollywood cinema depends. This methodological resistance situates the Johannes Contributions to Science Essay viewer in a nonvoyeuristic or objective position where reference is intentionally underdetermined.…Antonioni is out to explode or blow up all pat interpretive schemes (beliefs) regarding romance and reality by embarking upon cinematographic investigations of our perceptions of purchase emotional perception. [9]

The non-traditional framing of the subjects transforms our understanding of what “subject” is. More specifically, this transformation reassesses the relations between subject as content and Johannes, subject as form. In Antonioni, subject can be seen as both physical – elements that have a “physical presence” in the supreme court case of marbury, the film (i.e. characters’ physical bodies, buildings’ physical spaces) – as well as socially and culturally discursive – elements that grow out of Johannes Contributions to Science socio-cultural practices (i.e. colonial voyeurism, alienation). Furthermore, Antonioni uses cinema and its ability to capture the “real” world, while at the same time also capturing the norms of visual language constructed through cinematic practices. For example, in L’Avventura the norms of cinema suggest that Anna will eventually be found either dead or missing. The Supreme Case Important?! Instead, Antonioni does not determine anything of such sort.

Anna’s disappearance is left as ambiguous from the moment it occurs in the film until the end of the Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay film. Antonioni decontextualizes the to build narrative by leaving it open-ended, by not fully involving the audience in the search for Anna, and by not determining the motivations behind the characters’ behaviour. The audience’s expectation is based on the conventions used in other films. Johannes Kepler: Contributions To Science! Antonioni uses the conventions established through a majority of films as devices that he then strips to their bare essence. To illustrate Antonioni’s use of to the are the three basic film norms as a discursive practice, which he then manipulates in his films, let us examine some of the Johannes Kepler: more popular interpretations. Of the many reflections made about Antonioni’s films, in regards to Antonioni’s use of characters, there have been mainly two camps of interpretations.

There are those who believe that Antonioni’s use of the mise-en-scene is to represent the inner psyche of the characters; and there are those who have formed an to build a fire characters, understanding of the characters based on their interaction with each other. For example, Rifkin analyzes Antonioni’s representation of the characters psyche in Il Grido through his use of the mise-en-scene: Antonioni’s perspective on man and nature begins to surface more overtly in Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, Il Grido …Antonioni repeatedly depicts Aldo against hawthorne hollow the flat, austere landscape to manifest his protagonist’s existential malaise. A thematic current running through the film is the eclipse of nature in the modern world, analogous to Aldo’s own feelings of emotional obsolescence once he leaves Irma and his home in Goriano. Contributions Essay! [10] The representation of Aldo’s inner psyche is represented through the empty landscape that surrounds him. Does Jem Still Fear The Gifts In The Tree! He is one with his surroundings.

On the other hand, in his discussion about the presentation of emptiness in L’Avventura Harry Trosman argues that “sexuality is used as an Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay, antidote to despair and v. madison important?, a way of dealing with loss, humiliation, anxiety, or boredom. Sandro quickly establishes a tie with Claudia rather than allowing himself to mourn the disappearance of Anna.” [11] Trosman concentrates on how the characters respond to situations by making psychologically logical decisions. The truth is that both views are correct. Antonioni acknowledges both of to Science these interpretations in his films. Rifkin is correct to interpret that the landscape in Il Grido represents Aldo’s inner ‘existential malaise’, as is Trosman when he interprets that the characters in high purchase, L’Avventura use sexuality as a way of dealing with their unfulfilled lives. That is because Antonioni integrates both of Johannes Essay these interpretations simultaneously. But this is fear the gifts tree only one of the ways in which Antonioni contextualizes the different interpretations that can potentially surround a film. As was mentioned earlier, there are many ways in to Science, which Antonioni contextualizes cinema’s norms. Ultimately, a different interpretation arises. In this interpretation, the films begin to of versailles effect on germany, pertain to the realist versus idealist dichotomy that is often discussed in relation to the modernist notion of utopianism.

This dichotomy is at the core of Antonioni’s films. The theme of utopianism can be found in all three of the films that are being discussed in this essay, but are also found in Kepler: to Science, many of Antonioni’s other films. In Il Grido , Aldo is searching for utopian ideals but everywhere he travels resembles more of court case of marbury v. madison important? a dystopian reality. Similarly in L’Avventura , utopian idealism is Kepler: to Science portrayed as eroticism, while a dystopian reality is portrayed as the alienation due to modernized culture. And, in L’Eclisse , a utopian sense of belonging to a community is juxtaposed with a dystopian sense of isolation and loneliness.

The modernist notion of utopianism can be found in Antonioni’s presentation of a dystopian reality. Or as Kevin Moore writes in regards to the gifts in the tree, alienation in Antonioni’s films: To be alienated in an Antonioni film is to be resentfully situated in an overlyindustrialized, capital-intensive world that fails to provide a nurturing environment in which the emotions might flourish. The chief difficulty in criticism’s near uniform application of this negative notion of Johannes Essay alienation, however, is that it obscures a utopian gesture implicit in it. Although it is true that disconnection and its chief effects, loneliness and isolation, are thematically relevant to Antonioni’s cinema, the alienated self’s melancholic search for its lost ideal world tells only half the story. The other half is history, or the historical self’s search for an accommodation with a world it has itself produced. Rather than an end in itself, alienation, the effect of de-identification and non-correspondence, is the beginning of a process which, ideally, replaces the of versailles effect self back into a world of Johannes Contributions Essay its own devising and into a community of like-minded others as well. [12] Moore explains that ideality can be found in the sub-texts of Antonioni’s films. According To The What Three! Alienation is Johannes to Science presented as a negative form of reality, a reality that is far from being utopian. By illustrating a dystopian reality, Antonioni hopes to to build, inscribe utopian ideals that are opposing the ones that are seen in his films. Modernity and its Modernisms.

In a statement made at a press conference in Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, Cannes, Antonioni discussed his motives and considerations in to build a fire, the making of Kepler: to Science L’Avventura . In this statement, Antonioni suggested that the “ever-increasing split between moral man and scientific man [leads to the prevalence of eroticism as] a symptom of the emotional sickness of our time” [13]. Antonioni relates the issues that he deals with in L’Avventura with the modern social construct. Of Independence, Most Rights?! For Antonioni, liberalism is discussed in its relation to alienation due to its nature of to Science misplacing the why is the supreme case of marbury previous moral mindset for Kepler: Contributions to Science, the unknown realms of the scientific mindset. As a result, those individuals who find themselves alienated due to the split between morals (i.e. ideals) and science (i.e. reality or a constraint to follow one ideality) are only treaty of versailles able to express themselves through sexual means. Kepler: Contributions To Science! The statement was Antonioni’s attempt at clarifying his view that the film was a search for high purchase, a utopian idealism. Johannes To Science Essay! But how does Antonioni portray this theme in the formal scheme of the film? Hamish Ford provides a starting point for the response: While L’Avventura is high involvement a kind of road movie, the classical ideals of action as means to successful and morally unambiguous subjective mastery and bringing about of narrative events become eclipsed in this “adventure” by the radically foregrounded power of temporal and spatial affectivity. [14] In all three films discussed in this essay, Antonioni begins by taking the conventional approach to narrative filmmaking – the use of character-driven cause-and-effect devices in order to formulate moral conclusions – and makes them part of the form of his films. Where normally these devices would be considered the content of the film, in L’Avventura these devices are considered aspects of the form of the Contributions to Science film. Character plots are unresolved, characters are used as props within a mise-en-scene, Italy’s landscapes and to build characters, their cultural meanings are diminished to Contributions to Science Essay, serve as formal aesthetics of the film.

The films at the end do not obtain any conclusive moral messages that are not ambiguous. As in modernist paintings such as those of Piet Mondrian or Jackson Pollock, the content of Antonioni’s films are so abstract that they risk obscurity. The films are about form as content. That is, both form being used entirely as content, as well as an why is case of marbury, integration of Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay content as form. Working under the guise of the modernist idiom ‘ l’art pour l’art ’, Antonioni’s films are attempts at creating a cinema that explores its formal artistic capacities, and that alone. But more than this, these explorations also serve as enunciations of modern aesthetics and concerns caught within a modernizing and high purchase, modernist world. Anna, the “protagonist” in L’Avventura , is an to Science Essay, illustration of both content as form, as well as, modern concerns. We are first introduced to her through an argument that she is having with her father. We are made aware that she is having a communication problem with her father, whom she lives with. We are also made aware that her father is a retired diplomat and does the gifts in the, that he is very wealthy. Also, we understand that she is having problems with a romantic relationship specifically regarding the topic of marriage.

The film continues with Anna and her friend Claudia traveling to Sandro’s home. Upon arrival Anna confides her emotions to Claudia about her situation with Sandro: “It’s awful to be apart, you know. It really is, believe me. And it’s hard to make it work when one person’s here…the other far off somewhere. But…it’s also convenient.

Because then at least you can think whatever you want, however you please –if you know what I mean. But instead when…when someone’s right there, right there in Kepler: Contributions to Science, front of you, everything’s right there, do you understand?” Anna is confused about what she wants from the supreme court, her relationship with Sandro. She further complicates her problems by pursuing sexual activity with Sandro, immediately after she confides her emotions with Claudia. A few scenes later, Anna finally confronts her situation directly with Sandro during their discussion on the island. She confronts her desires to be alone and free while at the same time explaining that the thought of losing Sandro makes her want to die. This scene ends with a dissolving shot of Anna (the back of her head to the camera) looking at Sandro lying down on a rock.

This is the last time we see Anna in the film. After this shot, Anna’s physical presence in Johannes Kepler: Contributions, the film is no more. But was her presence in the film ever really felt? The introduction of many characters, and with them other plots, gives the sense that Anna’s presence was never the focus of the film. Even by the end of the film, the audience does not completely have a sense of who or what the film is centered around. That is because even though Anna does fill much of the content and continues to be a central-conflict after her disappearance, her existence is to serve the purpose of disappearance.

Anna’s character has an fear, internal conflict with what she is expected to become in her own life’s future, in a way that is echoed structurally in the future of the film’s narrative. We expect that Anna would physically remain throughout the film, and that if she disappears she would eventually be found. Instead Anna is never found, and at the end the film becomes more about Claudia and Sandro’s relationship with themselves and each other. As a cinematic device, Anna stands in as a representation of ambiguity and isolation in modern life, as well as the resituating of morals in the modern world. Finally, Anna’s disappearance serves to conclude that Claudia and Sandro’s search for her results in the translation of fear and frustration into eroticism.

Accompanying this representation of modernity is also a layer of Johannes Kepler: Contributions what Roger A. Salerno refers to high involvement purchase, as the Johannes culture of modernism: While modernity is frequently viewed as a set of social characteristics that describe a particular way of life, or even an high involvement, era reflecting such attributes, modernism … is more exclusively seen as a cultural movement … Modernism, as a movement in the arts, emerges from the influences of modernity.” [15] In Antonioni’s work we find that the films contain both a modernist aesthetic, and Contributions Essay, are also about the high involvement purchase culture of modernism and the period of modernity. We also find the relations between fragmentation-simulation, form-content and the ideality-reality dichotomy, as signifiers of the modern framework. In his analysis of the idealist-realist dichotomy, Robert Lyons describes Antonioni’s characters in L’Avventura as representations of the contrast between ideals and reality. “Throughout the film Antonioni virtually stereotypes certain characters within the ideality-reality framework to corroborate his point that the people in L’Avventura ’s reality have no appreciation for Essay, an ideality. High Involvement! They live in an ephemeral, mutuable and Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay, unnatural reality.” [16] Antonioni uses characters as devices that deal with loneliness and isolation. These characters suffer from the supreme, alienation solely to represent alienation. Antonioni does not explore the characters any further. That the characters have no depth is Antonioni’s dehumanization of them.

They remain as they are without the use, for example, of epiphany that is common to classical narrative. Johannes Essay! This is also Antonioni’s aesthetic choice. In this sense, Antonioni is documenting alienation in to build a fire, modern reality. Yet these characters also represent a desire for a better, more ideal, reality. Kepler: Essay! As viewers, we watch a struggle between characters who can easily change due to new circumstances, and others who become repressed by the changes being made. The Supreme Court V. Madison! We watch the transformation of a social reality in the terms of modernist aesthetics.

The three films discussed in this essay reveal the dynamics surrounding the themes of the modern. The modern is treated not only as a social, technological, or political force but simultaneously also as an artistic and culturally aesthetic discourse. Themes of alienation, isolation, tradition, and technological modernization are represented not only through representing a “reality” of modernization as it is established through the situations where the stories take place, but also through the established conventions of classical narrative as discursively formulated situations that are also being explored, investigated, and made to be displayed to a critically aware audience. In these films we can see how issues of modernity cannot be separated from those of modernism. In being attentive to both aspects of the Modern, Antonioni’s films divulge the complexity of this period, revealing a modernity through the aesthetics of modernism, and a modernism through the realities of the Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay modern. 1 Salerno, Roger A. Landscapes of Abandonment: Capitalism, Modernity and Estrangemnet . Albany: State University of treaty effect on germany New York Press, 2003, p.38. 2 Lunn, Eugene. Marxism and to Science Essay, Modernism: An Historical Study of Lukacs, Brecht, Benjamin, and Adorno . Berkley: University of California Press, 1982, pp.34-37. 3 Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Video Culture: A Critical Investigation . Ed.

John Hanhardt. Layton, Utah: Gibbs M. To The Of Independence, Three Rights?! Smith, Inc. 1986, p. 40. 5 Barthes, Roland. “Dear Antonioni…” L’Avventura: Michelangelo Antonioni, Director . Eds. Seymour Chatman and Johannes Kepler:, Guido Fink. London: Rutgers University Press, 1989. p.210. 6 By colonial cinema I refer to films such as the Lumiere bothers footage of African cultures and effect on germany, Robert J, Flaherty’s Nanook of the North (1922), where the photographing of the subjects physical selves is at the center of interest. Clearly this has very little distinction from other kinds of Johannes Kepler: cinema.

All cinema have an interest in photographing the physical characteristics of to build characters its subjects. But, as will soon become apparent, for purposes of this essay the identification of Johannes Kepler: colonial cinema is significant to understanding Antonioni’s film L’Eclisse . 7 Moore, Kevin Z. Treaty Of Versailles On Germany! “Eclipsing the Commonplace: The Logic of Alienation in Antonioni’s Cinema.” Film Quarterly , v.48 (Summer 1995): 28. 10 Rifkin, Ned. Antonioni’s Visual Language . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1982. 11 Trosman, Harry. Contemporary Psychoanalysis: and Masterworks of Art and Film . New York: New York University Press, 1996. p.132. 13 Antonioni, Michelangelo. “A Talk With Michelangelo Antonioni.” Film Culture , n.24 (1962): 51. 14 Ford, Hamish. in Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, Senses of Cinema: An Online Film Journal , Issue 28, Sept-Oct 2003, 7. Accessed June 2005.

Antonioni’s L’Avventura and Deleuze’s Time-Image. 15 Salerno, Roger A. Landscapes of Abandonment: Capitalism, Modernity and Estrangemnet . Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003. p.38. 16 Lyons, Robert J. Michelangelo Antonioni’s Neo-Realism: A World View . New York: Arno Press, 1976. p.44. Zach Melzer is currently enrolled as a PhD student at the Concordia University Mel Hoppenheim School of of versailles effect on germany Cinema in Johannes Kepler: Contributions Essay, Film and Moving Image Studies. Melzer’s interests include modernity, cultural materialism, and the history of moving image media. The Supreme Court Of Marbury V. Madison Important?! His current research focuses on understanding the social, economic, and cultural factors that inform the dynamics of screen technologies found in public spaces.

Realism and Reality in Antonioni’s Profession: Reporter. Zabriskie Point (1970, Antonioni): A Scene by Scene Analysis of a Troubled Masterpiece. Fragile Images and Concrete Things. Giallo (2009) vs. Four Flies on Grey Velvet (1971) The Work of Cinema in the Age of Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay Digital (Re)production. Najmeh Khalili Mahani.

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Cloud Computing Industry Analysis. Cloud computing refers to the provision of computing resources like computing power, applications, computing infrastructure and business processes in manner that is scalable as per Contributions to Science requirement and can be shared in order to gain economies of declaration rights?, scale. These provisions are delivered as a service over the internet (or any other electronic network) and the service can be accessed by the end users via a computing device. The data and application related information relevant to to Science Essay, the end users business/personal needs is declaration basic rights? stored on remote servers. The term ‘cloud’ is used for the abstraction of the complex network infrastructure that is used for providing the service. [1] Figure 1. To Science Essay. Logical Diagram for Cloud Computing: [2] Office building analogy for cloud[4] A more effective way to explain the concept of cloud computing is to compare it with an office building. An office building can accommodate multiple companies belonging to different types of involvement, industries. Although some companies can go for privately managed maintenance/servicing of their own office, it will be extremely economical and cost effective for all companies to go for shared services that are used by Kepler: Contributions to Science all.

These will mostly comprise of some essential and fundamental utility services. Why Is The Supreme Court Case V. Madison. Likewise, Cloud computing enables sharing of the computing resources, management of which by a single company could be taxing and Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay uneconomical. The flexibility, immediate availability and cost effectiveness of the maintenance, hardware and platform development offered by cloud computing can be compared with the electricity coming out of every wall of an office building, the high underlying technical aspects being abstracted from the user. Figure 2: Cloud computing compared to shared office space[4] Players in the Cloud computing world: [1] Vendors: Provide applications and enabling technology, infrastructure, hardware, and integration. Partners: Collaborate with the vendors and provide support services to customers. Business Leaders: Either use or evaluate various types of cloud computing offerings. Types of Cloud computing services:[3] Private Cloud: The cloud is Johannes Contributions to Science Essay owned by a particular customer with the required infrastructure and technology residing either on-site or off-site. This type of service is costly but provides better security.

Public Cloud: The cloud is owned by a large organization or company specializing in cloud computing services. The cloud can be rented for use to anyone willing to pay for it. It is the does in the cheapest type of cloud computing service but because of its public nature it is Contributions to Science deemed to why is case, be less secure. Hybrid Cloud: It consists of multiple private and Contributions public clouds. 2. WHAT ARE THE NECESSITIES OF CLOUD COMPUTING? 1. Information Technology penetrated in day to does jem still fear, day life very fast With the starting of Kepler: to Science Essay, Internet era, most of the people and majority companies in jem still in the tree, the world became dependent on the services you could get to with a click of the mouse. The best example may be the free email (Gmail/Yahoo mail), the chat technology (Yahoo Messenger), Social Networking websites (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter). One can’t imagine life without them.

That’s where the cloud was born. You need cloud data centers to run that stuff. 2. Cheaper source of Technology One may look for quality or ease of access but in the end the main thing that’s at the top of everybody’s mind is the economy. Cloud data centers are fundamentally different because they are built for very large user numbers and for a particular focus. Traditional data centers cannot compete on cost. In fact it’s no competition on Johannes Kepler: Essay the cost front. 3. To The Declaration Of Independence, What Are The Most Basic. Go Green In the scenario where environment is one of the biggest concerns, cloud computing seems as a perfect option as there is no paper etc required. The data is saved over Johannes Contributions to Science, internet as digital signals.

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And those are cloud apps by any definition. Contributions To Science Essay. There’s a wealth of involvement, it and it’s a boon to us. 6. No need for continuous software development Cloud computing is the best way of Johannes Kepler: to Science, software development. There was always two types of software development; the mission critical stuff that gives us business traction, and the rest. According To The Of Independence, Most Rights?. We need not to worry for it.

It’s the competition that drives the Kepler: software development and thus making it cost effective. 7. Emergence of cloud computing as an ecosystem The cloud computing has created an environment and hence various companies and developers create applications that support this environment, just like Google which is no more a website but an ecosystem. [4] 3. High Purchase. What are the needs of PaaS, IaaS, SaaS (Cloud Families)? PaaS: What is it? [5] The way of Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science, renting hardware, operating systems, storage and network capacity over the Internet is of versailles called PaaS(Platform as a Service). It allows the Johannes Essay customer to rent virtualized servers and associated services for running existing applications or developing and testing new ones. Features:[8] 1. All the services needed in to the declaration of independence, what, the process of making an application like developing, testing, deploying, hosting and maintaining applications is integrated into the same platform.

2. It is very user friendly as different user interfaces can be easily created using various web tools available in PaaS. . Various users can simultaneously use the same application process because of it’s “tenant architecture” feature. Johannes Contributions Essay. 4. Important?. It is used for billing and subscription management. 5. Integration can be done via common standards with web services and databases. 6. It has built in Johannes Contributions to Science Essay, feature to handle load balancing and hawthorne hollow failover. Revenue: Figure 3[9] Players: Amazon, IBM, Microsoft, Rightscale, Wipro, Adobe, Oracle, Vmware, TCS, Sales Force, Google, VirtuStream, NetMagic.

Which industry can use it and why? [11] Telecommunications industry can use PaaS. With the advent of 3G and popularity of Mobile VAS, PaaS products like Flypp that enable telcos with faster go-to market applications and reduce risk and operational overheads are predicted to see increased adoption. Contributions To Science. SaaS: What it is? [5] The model in which applications are hosted by a vendor or service provider and made available to customers over a network, typically the Internet is known as SaaS (Software as a Service) Features[8] 1. 2. 3. 4. It is characters used in commercial applications for Kepler: to Science, accessing web It has a central hub for software management It uses the according are the three most basic rights? star network model for oftware delivery It has a feature called “application programming interface” which is used to link different softwares 5. Time to time upgradation of software and recovery of system patches is not required to be monitored by Johannes Essay the SaaS users. Of Versailles Effect. Revenue Figure 4[9] Players: IBM, Microsoft, Synage, Wipro, Oracle, Vmware, TCS, Salesforce, Google, VirtuStream, NetMagic. Johannes Contributions To Science. Which industry can use it and why? [11] Healthcare industry can use SaaS. With medical tourism flourishing, India is slowly becoming a haven for healthcare services. Healthcare industry is also advancing its IT platforms to touch the global standards. This industry’s key worry of system consolidation can be addressed by involvement SaaS solutions. Iaas: What it is? [7] A model in which an organization outsources the equipment used to support operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components is called IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service).

The service provider owns the equipment and is responsible for Kepler: Essay, housing, running and maintaining it. The client has no obligations and he only pays on a per-use basis. Features:[8] 1. Dynamic scaling can be done 2. It allows access to multiple users on hawthorne single hardware 3. It is based on the model of utility pricing and hence has a variable cost 4. Resources are distributed as a service. Revenue Figure 5[10] Players: Amazon, Go Grid, Wolf Frameowrks, Microsoft, Rightscale, Wipro, Oracle, Vmware, TCS, Google, IBM, Net Magic, Reliance Data Centre.

Which industry can use it and why? [11] Government and Johannes Kepler: Essay public sector can use IaaS. With current e-governance initiatives driving on a PPP model, immense investments are being made on the IT infrastructure front. For projects like Aadhaar, the UIDAI is what are the rights? contemplating on the adoption of a cost-effective cloud based model that can provide effective and scalable processing of Kepler: Contributions Essay, large databases. 4. A Fire. Pricing Models Elastic pricing or Pay-as-you-Use model Elastic pricing model is Kepler: Contributions Essay a model that incurs less wastage and treaty on germany lower costs as under this system customers are charged based as per Johannes to Science Essay their usage and declaration of independence, are the basic consumption of a service. Johannes Kepler: To Science. As the users are keenly aware of the cost of doing business and consuming a resource (since it’s coming from their pockets) therefore the awareness of characters, cost and selective usage is Contributions to Science quite prominent.

When to to the what are the three most basic, use it? 1. When there is Unpredictability of resources . 2. When there is limitation of budget. Fixed or Subscription based pricing The simplest pricing option where the customer organization is billed on Johannes Kepler: to Science a fixed monthly basis is known as fixed pricing. Court Case V. Madison. The consumer is billed the same amount every month without consideration for actual usage. When to use it? 1. When requirements are well defined. 2. When more control over the budget is required. 3. When it is required to Essay, use the cloud for why is the supreme court case v. madison, a longer periods. Spot pricing for cloud It is a new concept in Johannes Kepler:, cloud computing, where market forces will decide the pot pricing model i. e. , when the demand of computing and storage resources is hawthorne higher than the price of services will be higher and vice-versa. Kepler: Essay. Cloud chargeback Customers are charged on the basis of usage.

Benefits of to the what rights?, this model are: 1. Johannes Kepler: To Science. 2. 3. 4. Resource utilization can become more visible. Forecasting, budgeting and capacity planning can be facilitated. It encourages the use of new emerging technologies. It facilitates justification and allocation of effect on germany, cost to their stakeholders and Johannes Kepler: Contributions business units. Treaty Of Versailles Effect. Adoption of cloud computing models in India Findings on the basis of survey done by E#038;Y recently: 1. Johannes Kepler:. 2. 3. 4. Annual contract based modelling is mostly opted by large enterprises.

Resource based usage model is adopted by SMB segment in a fire characters, majority. Potential customers are not satisfied with single pricing model. Pricing structures offered by vendors should be easy to understand, transparent and cost efficient. Figure 6 [61] 5. PESTLE Analysis Figure 7 Political Regulations Even with Internet’s rise to the Horizon, it took many years for policy makers to set up common norms and procedures regarding the internet’s usage. With the current popularity of cloud computing policy makers are more proactive in addressing technological changes. Regulations are still at a very nascent stage for Cloud computing: There are various government policies involved in that need to be incorporated by vendors to Contributions to Science, successfully implement cloud. There are various issues like security, privacy, location and ownership of data, that hinder the growth of cloud computing. Some vendors like Amazon Web Services have addressed certain issues by deploying local infrastructure in main markets (US and EU). [12] Government projects Cloud computing has the potential to provide good level government service deliveries to the people despite the government agencies suffering from to the what are the three most rights? resource constraints. US government has an Johannes Kepler: estimate to spend almost USD 20 billion on cloud computing related products. Figure 8[13] The federal government has a complete cloud related strategy that can be described below. ? Develop a decision framework that can be used to migrate services to cloud ? Find the to build characters services that can be migrated to Cloud and their time frames ? Calculate the Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science resources required to move the services to cloud. Figure 9[13] Economic Various multinational companies have reduced their IT spending in lieu of the a fire economic slowdown that has hit the economy hard.

JP Morgan recently cut their IT spending. 14] Cloud computing helps cut costs in Johannes Essay, following ways ? By lowering opportunity cost of running technology. When it comes to to build a fire characters, technology only 20% of the Essay time and effort goes into running technology which is where all the value lies. By using Cloud computing the 80-20 can be reversed as time required to manage the OS and hardware gets considerably reduced. ? Capital expenditure shifts to operating expenditure. Figure 10[15] ? Renewed focus on to build characters core activities With the movement from traditional operation to cloud, A company gets a lot of time focus on Johannes Kepler: Essay its core activities. Recently, Netflix moved on to the hawthorne hollow Amazon Cloud service (AWS EC2). Social Figure 11[18] Internet has been the most disruptive social phenomenon of the past couple of decades and has found its use in both professional and Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay personal activities.

The number of internet users is close to 2. 23 billion[18] and growing. Involvement. Figure 12[12] Internet users Since cloud being an internet based technology its adoption has a greater probability. The future generation will no doubt be connected through the internet for both personal and professional lives. Social media has grown from strength to strength and now even companies are focused towards the use of social networking to find opportunities for their growth. Technical Technology has taken great strides over the last 2 decades and IT infrastructure and Johannes Kepler: Contributions service sharing has become a great source of to build a fire, growth for some companies. Johannes Kepler:. With high speed of internet, low connectivity issues, higher security standards and hawthorne modularization of environments, it has become easier to implement cloud. Figure 13[12] IBM IT Transformation Roadmap The IBM IT transformation road map suggests how the IT has transformed over the years and it is Johannes to Science Essay headed straight towards the adoption of cloud computing on a major level.

LEGAL There is currently no legal framework designed for the adoption on cloud computing. There are local regulations on does jem still fear in the free flow of information between countries. Figure 14[16] There are a few questions that are raised by the law structure when cloud is Johannes Essay being implemented. 1. A Fire. Who is the controller? 2. Which law is applicable 3. Transfer outside the country? The future of Contributions, legal policies appear uncertain and they can easily keep a lid on growth of involvement, cloud computing Environmental IT contributes 2% of the world’s CO2 emissions in the world which is the Contributions same as the Airline industry[12]. Other than CO2 emission IT produces 2 million tones of electric waste as well. Cloud Computing is does fear the gifts one of the ways to reduce the environmental impact of IT industry. Most of the electric waste would become obsolete with the evolution of cloud computing. Figure 15[17] Total PESTLE Impact Diagram Figure 16[12] 6. Technological Infrastructure required for Cloud Computing Following Infrastructure is Johannes Contributions needed for Cloud computing: 1) 2) 3) 4) Computing Infrastructure Network Infrastructure Storage Infrastructure Linking Infrastructure a. Linking to a fire, Network b. Johannes. Linking to Storage Depending upon does jem still fear the gifts in the tree, the service required (IaaS or PaaS or SaaS), these infrastructure elements can be owned by the client or the Cloud service provider.

As per the CIO. com article are as follows: [1] , there are seven important aspects of any cloud infrastructure, these 1) Heterogeneous System Support Other than leveraging the latest software and hardware systems, the cloud infrastructure should also be compatible with the legacy and traditional systems of the organization and should also support the existing infrastructure. 2) Service Management In order to make the cloud offering successful, the cloud service should be able to Johannes Contributions to Science, provide proper resource (e. Effect On Germany. g. Kepler: Contributions Essay. CPU cycle or storage etc) guarantees, transparent metering rules of the service and proper billing cycles. Also, the service should be able to according to the are the three most basic rights?, be managed and Contributions deployed easily and quickly. 3) Dynamic Workload and Resource Management For providing truly on demand and virtualized services, it is the supreme court of marbury v. madison important? important for any cloud infrastructure to Johannes Contributions, manage the resources and workload as per the required service level agreement to the consumer. And hence in case of peak load, prioritize resources in order to to build a fire characters, be highly efficient and performance driven. 4) Reliability, Availability and Security Reliability, Availability and Security are important aspects of any service, whether it is provided through cloud or through the traditional model. Hence any cloud infrastructure should provide a smooth transition to the cloud service without compromising on any of these aspects of the Johannes Kepler: to Science Essay system. 5) Integration with Data Management tools It is possible that cloud computing management solutions do not fully take the high place of the traditional systems and data centers.

Hence the cloud infrastructure should be able to integrate with these out of the Contributions box systems and data centers to provide a hassle free service to the clients. 6) Visibility and Reporting An important feature of the cloud service is the ‘pay as per-use’ facility. Hence to fully achieve this objective, the jem still the gifts tree cloud infrastructure should support detailed levels of visibility and reporting regarding the usage, service level agreements, compliances, system and network performances, billing schedules etc. 7) Administrator, Developer and End User Interface Most Cloud infrastructures provide user interfaces and portals to hide the cloud service complexities from the end user and in a way also provide the ability to manage these cloud services in a simple yet comprehensive way. [19] 7. Cloud Computing – Drivers Vs Inhibitors Inhibitors for Cloud Computing. A report published by IBM [20] (IBM Academy of Technology, Thought Leadership White Paper, October 2010) based on the survey conducted on 110 Cloud implementation Projects, revealed that the Johannes Contributions major concerns for implementing Cloud were issues involving security, lack of the supreme court of marbury, perceived value proposition by the customers, lack of standardization and lack of funding for implementation. Some of the other factors include- complexity concerns, lack of skills, concerns about reliability and Kepler: Contributions Essay availability of cloud, technical immaturity etc. Figure 17 Source: IBM Academy of Technology, Thought Leadership White Paper, October 2010 [20]

Security [20] Security is one of the major concerns specially in public cloud implementations. Does Jem Still Fear The Gifts In The Tree. Most customers are worried about the privacy and integrity of their data. The concerns may increase even more if the cloud is shared among other customers, who may be your competitors. Hence according to the IBM survey most companies are interested in implementing the private cloud (instead of going for the public Cloud). Kepler: To Science. Standardization [20] As Cloud Computing is an emerging technology, the purchase processes and implementations are not yet standardized.

Each of the Cloud implementers provides their own solutions. Kepler: To Science. There are no industry wide standards yet developed for Cloud computing. Hence this lack of hardware requirements, software, operating system and to the most basic processes act as an inhibitor for implementing cloud. Value Proposition [20] Implementation of Cloud is much easier if value which it provides in terms of meeting the business requirements and cost benefits can be explained to the customer. Hence lack of Contributions to Science, tools and models that assist the customers to jem still fear, calculate the return on investment and value proposition pose a deterrent in cloud implementation. Complexity and Integration [20] Most customers today run a host of applications including numerous legacy tools. Kepler: Contributions. Customers are looking integrated solution for all their applications from the cloud providers. In The Tree. Hence the doubts over integrating all solutions and also reducing complexity are one of the concerns of the customers in Kepler: to Science, implementing cloud. According to Keane White paper [21] on “Cloud Computing – Clear thinking about its risks, benefits and according to the declaration of independence, what are the three success factors” impediments to cloud Adoption are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Security Privacy / Compliance Immaturity of Contributions Essay, vendors / Offerings Risk Mitigation Legacy Applications. Drivers for Cloud Computing BENEFITS [20] The study conducted by IBM based on 110 Cloud implementations revealed following results: ? ? ? Around 80% of clients acknowledge benefits in sharing of IT resources through highly virtualized infrastructure by implementing cloud. Around 60% achieved ease-of-use through self service with rapid delivery.

Taking about public clouds specifically ? ? ? Ease-of-use is 85% (as compared to 60% overall by hawthorne both public and private cloud users) 68% benefit from pay-as-you-go Charging model 63% benefit from Kepler: to Science Essay Internet / Web based Cloud. Figure 18 Source: IBM Academy of Technology, Thought Leadership White Paper, October 2010 [20] According to Keane White paper [21] on to build a fire “Cloud Computing – Clear thinking about its risks, benefits and success factors” benefits of Cloud solution are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Cost Capability / Scalability More Green Organization Agility Collaboration Focus According Deloitte report on “Cloud Computing – Forecasting Change – Market overview and Perspective” [22] Figure 19 Source: Deloitte Report on Cloud Computing – Forecasting Change – Market overview and Perspective [22] Deloitte’s perspective on perceived and real impact of cloud Inhibitors [22] Figure 20 Source: Deloitte Report on Cloud Computing – Forecasting Change – Market overview and Perspective [22] 8. Global cloud computing market size#038; Future growth According to the report called “Sizing the Cloud” of Johannes to Science Essay, independent research firm Forrester Research the global cloud computing market would fetch the $241 billion by 2020[1] as compared to $40. 7 billion in 2010. Treaty On Germany. It could be possible cause of rapidly growing of cloud computing services. Figure 21 According to this report, Software-as-a-service(SaaS) would have a significant share in the total revenue. This segment would offer more opportunity growth than any other segments. The SaaS would have the leading position in the Cloud Computing market by holding the $92.

8 billion by 2016[23]. According to IDC by Johannes Kepler: Essay 2015[24] nearly 24% of the software purchaseswould be service enabled software. SaaS delivery will have the share of around 13. 1% of worldwide software revenue and 14. 4% for according to the three most rights?, applications. Global Corporate Mobile SaaS Market will be at $1. billion in 2011 and will grow to $3. Contributions To Science Essay. 7 billion by 2016 with Compound annual growth rate of 25. High Purchase. 8% according to latest Strategy Analytics Wireless Enterprise Strategies. Johannes To Science Essay. It will be possible by the supreme case integration of business application on smartphones, tablets and other wireless devices[25].

Deloitte has estimated that cloud based usage will replace 2. 34% of IT spending in 2014 and further it will rise to 14. 49% in 2020[26]. Figure 22[26] Cisco’s Global Cloud Index forecasted that the transition of workloads from traditional data centres to cloud data centres will exceed in Kepler: to Science Essay, 2014. This year would be the treaty crucial year when workloads through cloud data centres (51%) would be higher than the traditional data centres (49%) for the first time. If this trend would be continued then cloud workloads would be dominating to the traditional work load by 2015. The Compound annual growth rate expected to be at 22% during 2010-15[27]. Fig 23[27] According to Gartner, Insurance industry would have a higher rate of cloud adoption (34%) compared to their enterprise counterparts (27%) in the Small #038; Medium Business (SMB) category. Fig 24[28] Complete analysis of Cloud Computing in Kepler: to Science, Asia [8] Fig 25[30] Indian Market In terms of market size, Indian market holds only $990 million compared to global market $ 109 billion7.

It is predicted that India would be having market of $3-4 billion by 20157according to Zinnov Management Consulting. On the hawthorne hollow other hand Nasscom and Deloitte consulting estimated that Indian market would be worth of $16 billion by 20207. It is also estimated that India would have a huge potential growth in future cause of millions of Small #038; Medium Business who are not able to afford to invest in the expensive business software solutions. Vishnu Bhatt, head of cloud services at Infosys says that, “About 60 per cent of enterprise workloads will be on the cloud in five years, from the current nonexistent levels”. Four different types of Johannes Contributions, market opportunity are there in the India. Roughly 25 per cent of the Indian market is in “private cloud” business cause of security reasons. Other three opportunities lies in the “public cloud” as Saas, PaaS, #038; in Iaas.

Independent software vendors (ISVs) like”Infosys, Wipro etc. ” are the middle players who serve to small clients from the big players like Microsoft and why is court of marbury v. madison important? Salesforce. The entire cost is borne by the end users, on an average the ISVs make around 20-30 per Johannes cent of the total revenue. Around 3000 ISVs are there in India and nearly 1000 of them have tied up with the Microsoft and Salesforce. So we can say Indian cloud market mostly depend on the ISVs[29]. 9. CLOUD COMPUTING AFFECTING FIRM BOUNDARY Start-ups Cloud computing reduces initial investments of the start-ups by reducing capital investment in a data center. In cloud computing the infrastructure for data storage is provided by the cloud providers which help start-ups in reducing their investment. Cloud computing does not eliminate the development cost but helps start-up companies to focus on their core competency without hiring people with expertise. Cloud computing also helps different software companies (start-ups) to expand their offering by partnerships with big firms (exa-IBM). [32, 33] Due to this lowered capital cost the companies were able to prove their products on less initial capital. . In 2011, 1339 companies received a total of US $5. 8bn in case of marbury v. madison, first-time financing (an increase of 7% in capital raised and an inc of 19. % in deal numbers, compared with the same period in 2010).

The data shows that Venture capitals are taking interest in investing on these small amounts since the risk is Johannes Contributions to Science low. This helps the entrepreneurs in cracking more deals as supported by data. [34] SMB’s Cloud computing will help SME’s in modeling their business. Since it is cost effective, now companies are targeting these small and medium size businesses. These firms were not able to implement ERP due to high cost and lack of IT infrastructure. Now due to cost cut of the infrastructure they can use cloud for their business. iON will enhance India’s global competitiveness by giving 35 million Indian SMBs access to world-class, simple-to-use and scalable technology tools. SMBs can use the power of iON to case of marbury v. madison, build their business advantage and compete on the global stage,” said N Chandrasekaran, chief executive officer and managing director, TCS, and chief architect, iON, in a statement. [35] The table below shows the share of small #038; medium businesses in Johannes Kepler: Contributions, different countries.

In India Tata Consultancy Service is targeting $1 billion revenue from does jem still the gifts these small and medium businesses firm [36] over to Science Essay, five years. Figure 26[37] A survey taken from Zoomerang (in April 2011) for small and medium businesses has shown that 77% of the small and medium businesses are not using cloud computing for their businesses and 52% of them will use cost effective IT management and maintenance sources. Figure 27 [39] A report published by Microsoft has shown that there is high potential for cloud adoption in SMBs. As per the report the a fire number of Johannes Essay, companies with between 11 and 25 employees will potentially double till next wave. In 101 – 250 employee segment 33% companies will adopt cloud in the next wave. Hawthorne. [38] Figure 28[38] Cost effectiveness of cloud computing will help startups and Johannes Kepler: Contributions Essay SMB’s in adopting it ,which in turn will help them in to the of independence, what most basic, making their process efficient and as the result “SMBs will be able to challenge big businesses”. [40] Venture Capital Investment The diagram below shows the growth of public cloud and its comparison with the overall IT. The public cloud services are growing strongly with a rate of 18%, which is Kepler: to Science a positive sign for the companies providing cloud services. 42] This growth is also attracting the Venture Capitalist. Currently, not much of the investment is treaty done on this sector and there is a strong chance of investment. [43] Figure 29[42] Venture capital is also affected by government regulations.

A report published by Josh Learner shows the impact of copyright policy changes on Venture capital investment in cloud computing companies. The data provided in the table in Appendix A has shown the Kepler: to Science Essay investment of venture [41] capital quarter wise for cloud service firms in U. S. To Build. A. Johannes Kepler: To Science. Figure 30[41] The figure below shows the ratio of investment in cloud computing companies to investment in all IT companies. A drastic change can be seen in high involvement, the graph after the copyright policy changes. [10] Figure 31[41] A survey taken in 2012 by Deloitte regarding global trends in venture capital shows the confidence level of investors of Johannes Kepler: Essay, different countries in different industries. The first graph shows the confidence level of venture capital investment sector wise and the second graph shows the confidence level of respondent’s country in cloud computing. 44] Figure 32[44] Figure 33[44] According to the article of NASSCOM Deloitte “Deconstructing the cloud – The new growth frontier for Indian IT – BPO sector” cloud computing will affect by making (below points are directly taken from the article) [40] Lines blur between consumer and enterprise IT – Initially innovation was driven by enterprises but now trends have been changed and innovations are driven by customer segment also e. g. blogging, social networking and to build a fire cloud is fast helping merge this divide between consumer and enterprise.

IT drives arket-facing differentiation for Essay, businesses – Cloud will be a net positive impact on existing service lines while opening up new “product” opportunities Cloud have a net positive impact on existing service line revenues, though traditional IS outsourcing and testing service providers will have to re-invent existing models Uptake will vary across industries because of different drivers and to build a fire barriers Cloud will alter the industry landscape – commoditization of IT through cloud computing will reduce entry barrier bringing some new breed competitors. Partnerships and alliances will be key to succeed in the Cloud ecosystem [40] 10. Kepler: Contributions. Web 2. Court Of Marbury V. Madison Important?. 0 and Cloud Computing Web 2. 0 and Kepler: to Science Cloud computing have changed the way we develop, deploy and use computer applications. The World Wide Web had seen a transition from the supreme court case of marbury important? traditional publishing model to the new collaborative information creation model. [45] Web 2. 0 uses network as a platform for sharing information, creating content, #038; making a virtual community, in contrast to the websites where users can simply read the text (passive viewing of Contributions to Science Essay, content). Web 2. Treaty Of Versailles. includes some of the most widely known and Kepler: to Science used applications blogs, social networking sites, YouTube, wikis, Twitter, web applications etc. [46] Figure 34: Web 1. 0 #038; web 2. 0 Structure [47] Cloud computing services in a fire, nature are Web applications which deliver desirable computing services on demand. It is thus a natural technical evolution that the Cloud computing acquires the Web 2. 0 technique. [50] Cloud computing defines the way the applications are deployed. It offers infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS).

As per the requirement of Johannes to Science Essay, resources, the processing power and memory gets allocated in an elastic manner. [45] The cloud is often misinterpreted as a combination of clusters and grids. However, in reality, clouds are next-generation data centres which are dynamically provisioned as per the user demand used for personalized resource collection for fulfilling specific user needs and to build a fire accessible through “Web 2. 0” technologies. [51] Web 2. 0 and Implications on cloud computing Web 2. 0 contributes to Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay, the front end of the business, cloud computing contributes to the back end of the business. Combining both, web 2. 0 #038; cloud computing, both front end as well as some of the back end of the business can be outsourced. The work can be performed from anywhere, teams may not be at does jem still fear in the tree the same location thus collaborating the information using, web 2. 0 tools, cloud, mobile technologies. This is the to Science concept of virtualized organizations. [53] Statistical Support David Osimo shows how web 2. 0 applications have grown masively.

He uses the data from Technorati, Wikipedia, Myspace, Youtube and involvement purchase Nielsen-Netratings for analysis. His findings can be seen in Figure 2.. [10] Figure 35: Growth of Web 2. 0 applications [54] Cloud computing is addressing two different market needs [50] 1. Large scale web applications (‘web 2. 0 markets’) – scale-out cloud E. g. Google Traditional data centre computing (‘enterprise market’) – server clouds E. g. Microsoft 2. Figure 36: Evolution of Kepler: Essay, World Wide Web [48] Cloud computing is integral to web 2. 0. Characters. It brings all sorts of user data along with operating system online and enables content sharing platform making the use of storage devices unnecessary. Web 2. 0 provides the collaborative functionality that helps in sharing documents and making changes on a real time basis regardless of their locations. This along with cloud computing allows for online storage of data avoiding the use of hardware, data centres as well as software replaced by online web applications like Google documents. There can be two kinds of Johannes Contributions Essay, customers for cloud [49] Those that need to scale up (achieve higher scale) at low costs 2. Those that want to high involvement purchase, eliminate data centre model and Johannes Kepler: Contributions to Science Essay choose pay-as-you-go model 1. Many technologies like grid computing, peer to a fire, peer computing contribute directly to cloud. Kepler: Essay. Thus, web 2. 0 provides users the capabilities of easy sharing and accessibility of data with anyone, from anywhere.

Applications like Google doc, face book are managed by purchase cloud storing huge amount of user data at Johannes Contributions one place and why is the supreme court case of marbury v. madison important? making it readily available to everyone anytime. These applications are one type of services, software as a service. Users have their own hardware at place, and use their own platform to run these cloud applications. The software resources like application servers, database servers, IDE etc. re not required. Other kind of services include application as a service where users have their own hardware at place and rent platforms from cloud to develop customized software. Finally infrastructure as a service means the complete virtualization of business with storage at cloud. Hardware and computing also need not be performed at Contributions the site but takes place in cloud. Resources like storage, computing power are not required. [52] With the advent of web 2. Does Jem Still In The Tree. 0, cloud computing got a boost as people could create and access any amount of information without having to worry about its storage. Google is the best example. It provides many services and applications like, Google doc, spreadsheet, YouTube all of Essay, which are cloud based and help sharing information on a real time basis.

The real time sharing of knowledge is what is made possible though combination of the two. Cloud is incorporated in the next version of web 2. 0 retaining the features of web 2. 0 and adding new ‘elasticity’ to the whole application or business deployment. 11. Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Threat of new entrants ? ? ? ? Low barriers to entry Relatively lower development costs Low fixed costs Huge potential market. Bargaining power of suppliers: ? ? High for few big players. Can depend on the type of service provided. Bargaining power of buyers: Existing competitive landscape ? ? Intense rivalry. Jem Still Fear Tree. Presence of big, small #038; niche players. ? ? Dependent on the size of the buyers. SMEs’ power can increase with standardization of offerings.

Threat of Johannes Kepler: Essay, substitutes: ? Mild threat from open source computing Figure 38 1. Existing competitive landscape: The Cloud computing market comprises of both small and big players causing intense rivalry. But there is why is court of marbury v. madison a large variety in the type of products and services required by customers and so there is room for big, small and niche players. There are the Kepler: Essay big players providing end-to-end services like IBM, Amazon, Microsoft etc, pure players like Salesforce and niche players like Dell-BOOMI (specializes in Cloud Integration), Rackspace (leader in managed hosting services) and small players like Zenith. [55][56] 2. Suppliers’ bargaining power: Since there is a huge potential for demand from SMEs and treaty of versailles on germany few big players like Google, Amazon and IBM, the Johannes Contributions to Science bargaining power of to build a fire, suppliers is quite high. Bargaining power could vary according to the type of service provided. E. g. In case of an Johannes Contributions Essay IaaS service, switching cost for customers might not be very high since the offering is largely undifferentiated, but same cannot be said for a SaaS offering.

Also there are is the gifts in the tree no clear rule of law for regulation of the data stored on Johannes Contributions to Science Essay the cloud. Data stored on the cloud could be subject to less stringent action by according what are the three rights? the regulatory authority than that stored on a personal computer. This could make the Contributions switching costs for the customers quite high. [57][58] 3. Buyer’s bargaining power: Bargaining power of does jem still fear in the, buyers can be said to be dependent on the size of the buyer’s business. In case of SMEs, the bargaining power can be said to be low since many of the suppliers in Kepler: Contributions to Science, the cloud computing market are large corporations. Whereas the buyer’s bargaining power can substantially dominate the supplier if the buyer itself is a large organization. The bargaining power of SMEs can increase if with the standardization of the services which will be facilitated with establishing proper regulatory compliances. [57] 4. Threat of new entrants:

With the huge potential market among the SMEs, it is expected that many new entrants from the according to the of independence, three rights? SME segment itself will enter the Cloud computing market with low cost offerings. This expectation lies on the fact of low fixed costs, relatively lower costs of Johannes Contributions to Science Essay, developing a product and low barriers to entry. [57][59][60] 5. Threat of substitutes: Open source computing can be considered as a substitute for Cloud computing services. But it can be expected that the SMEs will prefer Cloud computing over open source due to higher switching costs in case of open source and lower costs of cloud computing services. [57]

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