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In Praise of Idleness - An anti- work essay by Ber. In Praise of Idleness. finds some mischief still for idle hands to do.' Being a highly virtuous. child, I believed all that I was told, and 17th, acquired a conscience which has. kept me working hard down to the present moment. But although my conscience. has controlled my *actions*, my *opinions* have undergone a revolution. I. think that there is far too much work done in the world, that immense harm is. caused by the belief that work is virtuous, and definition, that what needs to be.

preached in modern industrial countries is quite different from what always. has been preached. Everyone knows the 17th english, story of the traveller in Naples who. saw twelve beggers lying in the sun (it was before the days of Mussolini), and offered a lira to the laziest of context, them. Eleven of them jumped up to claim. it, so he gave it to 17th century, the twelfth. This traveller was on the right lines. But in countries that do not enjoy Mediterranean sunshine idleness is more.

difficult, and a great public propaganda will be recquired to inaugurate it. I hope that, after reading the following pages, the leaders of the Y.M.C.A. will start a campaign to induce good young men to arachnophobia definition, do nothing. If so, I shall. not have lived in vain. Before advancing my own arguments for laziness, I must dispose of one.

which I cannot except. Whenever a person who already has enough to live on. proposes to engage in 17th english some everyday kind of job, such as school-teaching or. typing, he or she is state examples, told that such conduct takes the bread out of other. people's mouths, and 17th, is therefore wicked. If this argument were valid, it. would only be necessary for us all to be idle in order that we should all.

have our mouths full of bread. Copenhagen Essay! What people who say such things forget is. that what a man earns he usually spends, and in spending he gives employment. As long as a man spends his income, he puts just as much bread into other. people's mouths in spending as he takes out of other people's mouths in. earning. The real villain, from this point of view, is the man who saves. If he merely puts his savings in 17th a stocking, like the proverbial french. peasant, it is obvious that they do not give employment. If he invests his. savings, the arachnophobia definition, matter is 17th english, less obvious, and different cases arise.

But, I shall be told, the case is quite different when savings is to. lend them to some Government. In view of the fact that the bulk of the public. expenditure of most civilizations consists in payment for past wars or. preparation for future wars, the man who lends his money to a Governement is.

in the same position as the bad men in examples Shakespeare who hire murderers. 17th Century! The. net result of the man's economical habits is to increase the armed forces of. the State to which he lends his savings. Obviously it would be better if he.

spent his money, even if he spent it in drink or gambling. But, I shall be told, the case is quite different when savings are. invested in industrial enterprises. When such enterprises succeed, and. produce something useful, this may be conceded.

In these days, however, no. one will deny that most enterprises fail. That means that a large amount of. human labour, which might have been devoted to something that could be. enojoyed, was expended on producing machines which, when produced, lay idle. and did no good to anyone. The man who invests his savings in a concern that. goes bankrupt is therefore injuring others as well as himself. If he spent. his money, say, on giving parties for his friends, they (we may hope) would.

get pleasure, and so would all those upon whom he spent money, such as the. butcher, the baker, and the bootlegger. But if spends it (let us say) upon. laying down rails for surface cars in some place where surface cars turn out. to be not wanted, he has diverted a mass of labour into channels where it. gives pleasure to no one. Nevertheless, when he becomes poor through the. failure of his investment he will be regarded as a victim of undeserved. misfortune, whereas the essay, gay spendthrift, who has spent his money.

philanthropically, will be despised as a fool and a frivolous person. All this is only preliminary. I want to say, in all seriousness, that a great deal of century english, harm is Elections Course, being done in 17th the modern world by belief in the. virtuousness of work, and that the state, road to happiness and prosperity lies in. an organized diminution of work.

First of all: what is work? Work is of two kinds: first, altering. the position of matter at or near the earth's surface relatively to 17th, other. such matter; second, telling other people to do so. Great Gatsby Essay! The first kind is. unpleasant and ill paid; the 17th century, second is pleasant and highly paid. The second. kind is gatsby topics, capable of indefinite extension: there are not only century, those who give. orders, but those who give advice as to what orders should be given. Usually.

two opposite kinds of advice are given simultaneously by two organized bodies. of men; this is called politics. The skill required for this kind of work. is not knowledge of the subjects as to which advice is given, but knowledge. of the art of persuasive speaking and welfare state, writing, i.e. of advertising. Thoughout Europe, though not in America, there is a third kind of. men, more repected than either of the classes of workers. There are men who, through ownership of land, are able to make others pay for the privilege of. being allowed to 17th century english, exist and to work.

These landowners are idle, and I might. therefore be expected to praise them. Unfortunately, their idleness is essay, only. rendered possible by 17th the industry of others; indeed their desire for. comfortable idleness is historically the source of the whole gospel of work. The last thing they have ever wished is that others should follow their. From the beginning of civilization until the Industrial Revolution, a. man could, as a rule, produce by coaster hard work little more than was required for.

the subsistance of himself and century english, his family, although his wife worked at least. as hard as he did, and his children added their labour as soon as they were. old enough to do so. The small surplus above bare necessaries was not left. to those who produced it, but was appropriated by warriors and Copenhagen, priests. In. times of famine there was no surplus; the warriors and priests, however, still secured as much as at other times, with the result that many of english, the. workers died of hunger. This system persisted in Russia until 1917, (Since.

then, members of the Exam Essay, Communist Party have succeeded to this privilege of the. warriors and priests.) and still persists in century english the East; in England, in spite. of the great gatsby essay topics, Industrial Revolution, it remained in full force thoughout the. Napoleonic wars, and until a hundred years ago, when the new class of. manufacturers acquired power.

In America, the system came to an end with the. Revolution, except in the South, where it persisted until the Civil War. A. system which lasted so long and ended so recently has naturally left a. profound impress upon men's thoughts and 17th, opinions. Topics! Much that we take for. granted about the desirability of work is derived from this system, and, being pre-industrial, is not adapted to the modern world. 17th! Modern technique. has made it possible for leisure, within limits, to be not the prerogative of. small privileged classes, but a right evenly distributed throughout the. community. The morality of work is the morality of slaves, and the modern.

world has no need of slavery. It is obvious that, in primitve communities, peasants, left to. themselves, would not have parted with the high vs low context, slender surplus upon which the. warriors and century, priests subsisted, but would have either produced less or. consumed more. At first, sheer force compelled them to produce and part with. the surplus. Gradually, however, it was found possible to induce many of. them to great, accept an ethic according to century english, which it was their duty to work hard, although part of their work went to support others in idleness. By this. means the amount of coaster designs, compulsion required was lessened, and the expenses of.

government were diminshed. To this day, 99 per cent of english, British wage-earners. would be generally if it were proposed that the King should not have a larger. income than a working man. The conception of duty, speaking historically, has beens a means used by the holders of power to induce others to live for. the interests of their masters rather than for their own. Of course the. holders of power conceal this fact from themselves by gatsby essay topics managing to believe. that their interests are identical with the larger interests of century, humanity.

Sometimes this is true; Athenian slave-owners, for instance, employed part of. their leisure in making a permanent contribution to Copenhagen Essay, civilization which would. have been impossible under a just ecnomic system. Leisure is essential to. civilization, and in former times leisure for the few was only rendered. possible by the labours of the many. But the 17th, labours were valuable, not. because work is good, but because leisure is good.

And with modern technique. it would be possible to examples, distribute leisure justly without injury to. Modern technique has made it possible to diminish enormously the. amount of labour required to secure the necessaries of life for 17th century, everyone. This was made obvious during the war. At the time all the men in the armed. forces, all the men and women engaged in Copenhagen Essay the productions of munitions, all. the men and women engaged in spying, war propaganda, or Government offices. connected with the war, were withdrawn from productive occupations. In spite. of this, the general level of physical well-being among unskilled.

wage-earners on the side of the Allies was higher than before or since. The. Significance of this fact was concealed by finance: Borrowing made it appear. as if the english, future was nourishing the Elections Course Final Exam Essay, present. But that, of course, would have.

been impossible; a man cannot eat a loaf of bread that does not yet exist. The war showed conclusively that, by the scientific organization of. production, it is possible to keep modern populations in fair comfort on a. small part of the working capacity of the modern world. If, at 17th century the end of. the war, the Course Exam, scientific organization, which had been created in order to. liberate men for fighting and munition work, had been preserved, and the. hours of work had been cut down to four, all would have been well. Instead. of that the old chaos was restored, those whose work was demanded were made. to work long hours, and the rest were left to starve as unemployed. Why?

because work is a duty, and a man should not receive wages in proportion to. what he has produced, but in proportion to his virtue as exemplified by his. This is the morality of the Slave State, applied in circumstances. totally unlike those in which it arose. No wonder the result has been. disastrous. Let us take an illustraion. Suppose that, at century english a fiven moment, a. certain number of designs, people are engaged in century the manufacture of pins. They make.

as many pins as the workd needs, working (say) eight hours a day. Someone. makes an topics, invention by which the english, same number of men can make twice as many. pins: pins are already so cheap that hardly any more will be bought at a. lower price. In a sensible world, everybody concerned in the manufacture of. pins would take to working four hours instead of eight, and everything else. would go on as before. Welfare State! But in the actualy world this would go on as before.

But in the actualy world this would be thought demoralizing. English! The men still. work eight hours,thereare too many pins, some employers go bankrupt, and half. the men previously concerned in making pins are thrown out of work. There is, in the end, just as much leisure as on the other plan, but half the men are. totally idle while half are still overworked. In this way, it is insured that. the unavoidable leisure shall cause misery all round instead of being a. universal source of happiness. Can anything more insane be imagined?

The idea that the poor should have leisure has always been shocking. to the rich. Copenhagen! In England, in the early nineteenth century, fifteen hours was. the ordinary day's work for a man; children sometimes did as much, and very. commonly did twelve hours a day. When meddlesome busybodies suggested that. perhaps these hours were rather long, they were told that work kept adults.

from drink and children from mischief. When I was a child, shortly after. urban working men had acquired the vote, certain public holidays were. established by law, to the great indignation of the upper classes. I remember. hearing an old Duchess say: 'What do the poor want with holidays? They ought.

to work.' People nowadays are less frank, but the sentiment persists, and century, is. the source of much of our economic confusion. Let us, for a moment, consider the welfare state examples, ethics of work frankly, without. superstition. Every human being, of necessity, consumes, in the course of his.

life, a certain amount of the produce of human labour. Assuming, as we may, that labour is on the whole disagreeable, it is unjust that a man should. consume more than he produces. Of course he may provide services rather than. commodities, like a medical man, for example; but he should provide something. in return for his board and lodging. 17th English! To this extent, the duty of work must be. admitted, but to this extent only.

I shall not dwell upon the fact that, in all modern societies outside. the USSR. many people escape even this minimum amount of work, namely all. those who inherit money and all those who marry money. I do not think the. fact that these people are allowed to vs low context, be idle is nearly so harmful as the 17th century english, fact. that wage-earners are expected to overwork or starve. If the ordinary wage-earner worked four hours a day, there would be. enough for everybody, and no unemployment-assumiong a certain very moderate. amount of sensible organization. This idea shocks well-to-do, because they. are convinced that the poor would not know how to use so much leisure.

In. America, men aften work long hours even when they are already well off; such. men, naturally, are indignant at the idea of leisure for definition, wage-earners, except. as the frim punishment of unemployment; in fact, they dislike leisure even for. their sons. oddly enough, while they wish their sons to work so hard as to. have not time to be civilized, they do not mind their wives and daughters. having no work at all.

The snobbish admiration of uselessness, which, in an. aristocratic society, extends to both sexes, is, under a plutocracy, confined. to women; this, however does not make it any more in agreement with common. The wise use of 17th, leisure, it must be conceded, is a product of. civilization and education. A man who has worked long hours all his life will. be bored if he becomes suddenly idle. Essay! But without a considerable amount of. leisure a man is cut off from many of the 17th century, best things. There is no longer any. reason why the bulk of the population should suffer this deprivation; only a. foolish asceticism, usually vicarious, makes us continue to insist on paper roller designs work in.

excessive quantities now that the need no longer exists. In the english, new creed which controls the government of Russia, while there. is much that is very different from the Copenhagen Essay, traditional teaching of the West, there are some things that are quite unchanged. The attitude of the governing. classes, and especially of those who conduct educational propaganda, on the. subject of the dignity of labor, is almost exactly that which the governing.

classes of the world have always preached to what were called the 'honest. poor'. Industry, sobriety, willingness to century english, work long hours for great gatsby essay topics, distant. advantages, even submissiveness to century english, authority, all these reappear; moreover. authority still represents the will of the Copenhagen Essay, Ruler of the Universe, Who, however, is still called by 17th a new name, Dialectical Materialism.

The victory of the great, proletariat in Russia has some points in common. with the victory of the feminists in some other countries. 17th Century English! For ages, men had. concealed the the superior saintliness of women, and had consoled women for. their inferiority by maintaining that saintliness is more desirable than. power.

At last the feminists decided that they would have both since the. pioneers among them believed all that the men had told them about the. desirability of virtue, but not what they had told them about the. worthlessness of political power. Paper Designs! A similar thing has happened in Russia as. regards manual work. For ages, the english, rich and their sycophants have written in. praise of great gatsby essay topics, 'honest toil', which have praised the simple life, have professed a. religion which teaches that the poor are much more likely to go to century english, heaven than. the rich, and in general have tried to make manual workers believe that there. is some special nobility about coaster, altering the position of matter in space, just. as men tried to make women believe that they derived some special nobility.

from their sexual enslavement. 17th English! In Russia, all this teaching about welfare, the. excellence of manual work has been taken seriously, with the result that the. manual worker is more honoured than anyone else. 17th Century! What are, in essence, revivalist appeals ar made, but not for the old purposes: they are made to. secure shock workers for designs, special tasks.

Manual work is the ideal which is. held before the young, and century, is the basis of ethical teaching. For the paper, present, possibly, that is all to the good. A large country, full of natural resources, awaits development, and 17th century english, has to be developed with. very little use of Essay, credit. 17th English! In these circumstances, hard work is arachnophobia definition, necesary, and. is likely to bring a great reward. Century English! But what will happen when the point has. been reached where everybody could be comfortable without working long hours? In the West, we have various ways of dealing with this problem. We.

have no attempt at Copenhagen economic justice, so that a large proportion of the 17th century, total. produce goes to a small monority of the vs low, population, many of whom do no work at. all. owing to the absence of any central control over production, we produce. hosts of 17th english, things that are not wanted. We keep a large percentage of the.

working population idle, because we can dispence with their labour by making. the others overwork. When all these methods prove inadequate, we have a war: we cause a number of people to manufacture high explosives, and great essay topics, a number of. other to explode them, as if we were children who had just discovered. fireworks. By a combination of all these devices we manage, though with. difficulty, to keep alive the notion that a great deal of severe manual work. must be the lot of the average man.

In Russia, owing to century english, more economic justice and central control over. production, the great essay topics, problem will have to be differently solved. Tha rational. solution would be, as soon as the necessaries and elementary comforts can be. provided for all, to reduce the 17th century, hours of labour gradually, allowing a popular.

vote to decide, at each stage, whether more leisure or more goods were to be. preferred. Copenhagen Essay! But, having taught the supreme value of hard work, it is difficult. to see how the authorities can aim at a paradise in which present leisure is. to be sacrificed to future productivity. I read recently of an ingenious plan.

put forward by Russian engineers, for 17th english, making the White Sea and the northern. coasts of Siberia warm, by putting a dam across the high vs low context, Kara Sea. An admirable. project, but liable to postpone proletarian comfort for a generation, while. the nobility of toil is century english, being displayed amid the ice-fields and snowstorms of. the Arctic Ocean. This sort of things, if it happens, will be the great gatsby, result of. regarding the virtue of hard work as an end in itself, rather than as a means. to a state of affairs in 17th century which it is arachnophobia, no longer needed. The fact is that moving matter about, while a certain amount of 17th century english, it is. necesary to our existence, is vs low context, emphatically not one of the ends of human life.

If it were, we should have to consider every navvy superior to Shakespeare. We have been misled in this matter by 17th century two causes. One is the necessity of. keeping the poor contented, which has led the rich, for thousands of years, to. preach the dignity of labour, while taking care themselves to remain.

undignified in this respect. The other is the definition, new pleasure in mechanism, which makesus delight in the astonishingly clever changes that we can produce. on the earth's surface. Neither of these motives makes any great appeal to. the actual worker. if you ask him what he thinks the best part of his life, he is not likely to 17th century, say: 'I enjoy manual work because it makes me feel that I. am fulfilling man's noblest task, and because I like to paper roller designs, think how much man can. tranform the plante. It is 17th, true that my body demands periods of rest, which I. have to fill in as best I may, but I am never so happy as when the morning. comes and arachnophobia definition, I can return to 17th century english, the toil from paper coaster designs, which my contentment springs.' I have.

never heard working men say this sort of thing. English! They consider work, as it. should be considered, a necessary means to a livelihood, and it is from their. leisure hours that they derive whatevery happiness they may enjoy. It will be said that, while a little leisure is pleasant, men would. not know how to fill their days if they had only four hours of work out of. every the twenty-four. In so far as this is true in the modern world, it is.

a condemnation of our civilization; it would not have been true at any period. There was formerly a capacity for light-heartedness and play which has been to. some extent inhibited by the culy of efficiency. Elections Final! The modern man thinks that. everything ought to be done for century english, the sake of something alse, and never for its. own sake.

Serious-minded persons, for example, are continually condemning the. habit of going to the cinema, and arachnophobia definition, telling us that it leads the young into. crime. But all the century english, work that goes to producing a cinema is arachnophobia definition, respectable, because it is work, and because it brings a money profit. 17th English! The notion that the.

desirable activities are those that bring a profit has made everything. topsy-turvy. Copenhagen! The butcher who provides you with meat and the baker who. provides you with bread are praiseworthy, because they are making money; but. when you enjoy the food they have provided, you are merely frivolous, unless.

you eat only to get strength for your work. Broadly speaking, it is held that. getting money is good and spending money is 17th century, bad. Arachnophobia! Seeing that they are two. sides of one transaction, this is english, absurd; one might as well maintain that. keys are good, but keyholes are bad. Whatever merit there may be in the. production of Copenhagen Essay, goods must be entirely derivitive from the advantage to be. obtained by consuming them. The individual, in out society, works for century, profit; but the paper roller, social purpose of his work lies in the consumption of what he.

produces. 17th English! It is this divorce between the individual and the social purpose. of production that makes it so difficult for men to think clearly ina world in. which profit-making is the incentive to industry. We think too much of. production, and too little of consumption. One result is that we attach too. little importance to enjoyment and Copenhagen Essay, simple happiness, and that we do not judge.

production by the pleasure it gives to the consumer. When I suggest that working hours should be reduced to four, I am not. meaning to 17th, imply that all the remaining time should necessarily be spent in. pure frivolity. I mean that four hours' work a day should entitle a man to. the necessities and elementary comforts of life, and that the rest of his time. should be his to use as he might see fit. It is an essential part of any. social system that education should be carried further than it usally is at. present, and Copenhagen Essay, should aim, in part, at providing tastes which would enable a man. to use leisure intelligently.

I am not thinking mainly of the sort of things. that would be 'highbrow'. Peasant dances have died out english, except in remote. areas, but the impulses which caused them to be cultivated must still exist in. human nature. The pleasures of urban populations have become mainly passive: seeing cinemas, watching football matches, listening to the radio, and so on. This results from the fact that their active energies are fully taken up with. work; if they had more leisure, they would again enjoy pleausres in Course Final Exam Essay which they. took an active part.

In the past, there was a small leisure class and a larger working. class. The leisure class enjoyed advantages for century, which there was no basis in. social justice; this necessarily made it oppressive, limited its sympathies, and caused it to invent theories by which to justify its privileges. These. facts greatly diminished its excellence, but in spite of this drawback it. contributed nearly the whole of what we call civilization. It cultivated the. arts and gatsby essay, discovered the sciences; it wrote books, invented philosophies, and. refined social relations.

Even the liberation of the oppressed has usually. been inaugurated from above. Without the 17th century english, leisure class, mankind would never. have emerged from barbarism. The method of Course Final, a hereditary leisure class without duties was, however, extraordinarily wasteful.

None of the century english, members of the class had been taught to. be industrious, and the class as a whole was not exceptionally intelligent. The class might produce on Darwin, but against him had to be set tens of. thousands of country gentlemen who never thought of anything more intelligent. than foxhunting and punishing poachers. At present, the universities are. supposed to provide, in a more systematic way, what the vs low, leisure class provided. accidentally and as a by-product.

This is a great improvement, but it has. certain drawbacks. University life is so different from life in the world at. large that men who live in an academic *milieu* tend to 17th century english, be unaware of the. preoccupations and problems of ordinary men and women; moreover their ways of. expressing themselves are usually such as to rob their opinions of the. influence that they ought to have upon the general public.

Another. disadvantage is that in universities studies are organized, and the man who. thinks of some original line of research is likely to be discouraged. Academic, therefore, useful as they are, are not adequate guardians of the. interests of civilization in Essay a world where everyone outside their walls is. too busy for unutilitarian pursuits. In a world where no one is compelled to work more than four hours a. day, every person possessed of scientific curiosity will be able to indulge.

in it, and every painter will be able to paint without starving, however. excellent his pictures may be. 17th Century English! Young writers will not be obliged to draw. attention to themselves by sensational pot-boilers, with a view to Final, acquiring. the economic independance needed for monumental works, for which, when the. time at last comes, they will not have lost the taste and capacity. Men who, in their professional work, have become interested in 17th english some phase of economics. or government, will be able to develop their ideas without the academic. detachment that makes the work of university economists often seem lacking in. reality.

Medical men will have time to great gatsby essay topics, learn about the progress of medicine, teachers will not be exasperatedly struggling to teach by routine methods. things which they learnt in their youth, which may, in the interval, have been. proved to be untrue. Above all, there will be happiness and 17th century, joy and life, instead of frayed. nerves, weariness, and dyspepsia. The work exacted will be enough to make. leisure delightful, but not enough to context, produce exhaustion. Since men will not. be tired in english their spare time, they will not demand only such amusements as are. passive and vapid.

At least one per Elections Course, cent will probably devoted the time not. spent in century english professional work to pursuits of some public importance, and, since. they will not depend upon these pursuits for their livelihood, their. originality will be unhampered, and there will be no need to conform to the. standards set by elderly pundits.

But it is not only in these exceptional. cases that the advantages of leisure will appear. Ordinary men and women, having the opportunity of a happy life, will become more kindly and less. persecuting and less inclined to view others with suspicion. The taste for. war will die out, partly for this reason, and partky because it will involve.

long and severe work for all. Good nature is, of all moral qualities, the. one that the world needs most, and good nature is the result of ease and. security, not of a life of Elections Course Final Essay, arduous struggle. Modern methods of production. have given us the possibility of ease and security for all; we have chosen, instead, to english, have overwork for some and Essay, starvation for others. Century! Hitherto we. have continued to be as energetic as we were before there were machines; in. this we have been foolish, but there is no reason to go being foolish forever.

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9 11 attack essay Analysis of the attacks of century english, 9/11. September 11, 2001 attack is an historical event that was regarded by roller, many people as the most significant event in the United States of America. The attack led into deaths of a good number of people inside United States than any other one-day event since the century english Pearl Harbor attack. It was noted that the people who passed away in that terrifying incident that morning were just the most direct victims of the attack (Wilborn, 2003). In addition, many would be affected by the ensuing war on terror, the welfare doctrine of pre-emptive attack on sovereign nations, an orgy of war and 17th english surveillance profiteering, and the ever increasing dismantling of corporate and government accountability. The September 11, 2001 attack was recognized as an act of mass-murder that resulted into the deaths of high, nearly four thousand people.

The event left many people in great shock. However, other important facts concerning the attack remain a mystery to a large portion of the population. In many parts starting from the century physics of the welfare state examples World Trade Center collapses up to the investigation processes, to who was the beneficiary from the century attack the great gatsby topics reality of the entire event diverges from the myth. From the various analysis carried concerning the event of the September 11, 2001, the century terrorists had been working to bring together a group of militants to attack the United States on the 10 th anniversary of the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington. How the September 11, 2001 events influenced critical infrastructure as a whole. Critical infrastructure includes the systems and assets that are very vital in performance of the United States` economy. Therefore, the destruction of such assets would have a very significant impact on the security of the national economy, public health or safety and the general security of the society. Examples of a country’s critical infrastructure include telecommunication systems, water supply infrastructures, production of electricity, and agriculture among other systems. In the United States, the critical infrastructure departments consists of defense industrial base, energy sector, public health and healthcare, commercial facilities and transportation systems.

The critical infrastructures are known to be very vital because of their purposes or services they offer to the country. Furthermore, these assets and systems are very complex thus; the influences of vs low, terrorist attack could spread far and beyond the exact target and reverberate long after the immediate damage (Kingsbury, 2003). 17th Century. The essential goods and services are provided by arachnophobia, agriculture, water and public health sector of the critical infrastructure of the United States. The country’s security and freedom are ensured by the government institutions. Whereas, the productivity of the economy and 17th its growth is facilitated by arachnophobia, the information and telecommunications department. According to research, the terrifying attack of September 11, 2001 created an immediate and substantial effect on the international travel worldwide. For instance, the United States especially experienced a reduction in international visitors in century particular those flying in from overseas.

This reduction in state examples international visitors illustrated the widespread concern about the safety of international air travel. It was also noted that economic factors were also the major contributor in the reduction in english the travel to the United States after the occurrence of the attack. The global economy is reported to have experienced an extreme recession rate that led to the reduction in demand for air travel between 2001 and 2002. The attacks of the September 11, 2001 led to high vs low context, the country’s reduction in the production of goods and services because of english, lack of foreign exchange that could be brought in definition by the international air travelers. For instance, due to the attack there were concerns and deteriorating economic conditions because of the more restrictions being put on the visa policy. Negative perceptions were created among the visitors thus increasing concern within the travel industry that the 17th century United States had become a less attractive travel destination hence spoiling its image worldwide. The September 11, 2001 attacks cause huge disruptions that affected a large number of critical infrastructure sectors in the United States both regionally and nationally. The major sectors affected included telecommunication systems, transportation, banking, and financial sectors. Topics. The nation’s dependence on information technology demonstrates the new vulnerabilities to critical infrastructure (National Infrastructure Protection Plan, 2006). Therefore, as a way of protecting these critical infrastructures it is necessary that the necessary personnel are identified and 17th century contacted at locations noted as critical infrastructures mainly for the purpose of opening communication lines. Through this easier acquisition of the important information that could assist in analyzing the location that will assist in general protection is allowed.

There was creation of new office of homeland security within the high context national Security Council. The main purpose for this development was to establish and coordinate the launching of a comprehensive national strategy that could offer security to the United States from the threats. It also had the responsibility of ensuring that United States critical infrastructure was protected from the attacks of the century english terrorists. The national critical infrastructure protection plans in vs low context every country chose to identify these infrastructures through a national catalogue of critical infrastructures and to create measures required for their protection especially from terrorist attacks. This could by adopting an international systems perspective. It could also be through accepting responsibility for 17th century english hazards and disasters. Therefore, the definition September 11, 2001 was for sure a terrifying event that led the reduction of economic status of the United States.

A large number of critical infrastructures were seriously affected inclusive of century english, telecommunication, banking and financial sectors, agriculture, and power production sectors. You can place an order similar to this with us. You are assured of an authentic custom paper delivered within the given deadline besides our 24/7 customer support all through.

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Essay: Jack Welch as a transformational leader. Leadership is the 17th english, collective action of everyone to influence. One’s behavior actions and words determine how he or she will influence ( Scott, 2005). In my paper, I will explore the important concept of leadership and arachnophobia definition more particularly transformation leadership. I will discuss the transformational model of leadership as I base Jack Welch as a good example of such a leader in the modern workplace. From the research it will come out clearly that leadership styles and capabilities that are associated with effectiveness, leadership competencies have been essential to all organizations. Leadership is 17th english basically the collective action of anyone to influence. Ones behavior actions and words determine how he or she can influence. (Scott, 2005). As such, a leader is someone who guides other in doing what is required but does not command them. On the same note, leader is born but not trained. Through his captivate nature, something that is well brought about by his visionary nature, he has been able to transform his company to the next level.

Transformation is all about the ability of the leader to be an influential figure, motivational factor and the capability of paper empower others into putting an effort into effectiveness of their organizations. More research thus needs to 17th english be done regarding what leadership entails especially in the modern working environment that gets complex with time. Type of leadership #038; Core competencies. An understanding of the main qualities that make a leader is vital as it is the qualities that bring out the different kinds of leaders. Emerging approaches on leadership tend to definition be result-oriented and driven. Charismatic leader’s exhibit ambitious move and english are aware of the main aims and are able to communicate effectively .Leaders have Strong moral and self-discipline. Charisma attracts people around and welfare state provides for 17th century english chances of competition thus success attributive nature of leaders ten to link all happenings to great gatsby essay specific cause. An approach of exchange relationship between leaders and the led bring closer faster development and 17th century goal achievement. Transformative leaders tend to be the most popular type of leaders in that they forego personal need is for gatsby the benefit of the general community.

Transformational leaders can be identified as people who recognize potential in their subordinates and help in 17th century english, developing it. Arachnophobia Definition? Transformational type of leadership is identified by mentoring and empowering employees to century english contribute. Welfare State Examples? This is 17th century illustrated here in the diagram. Transformational leaders pay attention to worries also developmental wishes of roller their followers, help them in looking at old problems from new perspectives, and century have the ability of exciting and inspiring followers towards achieving organizational goals. Joseph (2010) denotes that transformational type leadership, if contrasted with transactional leadership appears to be strongly associated with lower forms of turnover rates, increased productivity besides employee satisfaction. Transformational leaders are viewed by superiors as being more competent, higher performers and more promotable. Jack Welch as a Transformational Leader. Having joined GE in 1960, Jack Welch was in 1981 named CEO of GE. In the early years Jack Welch as CEO initiated a plan of restructuring that consisted of cuts in massive jobs, placing the many businesses in Elections Course Essay, number one or in number two according to century english various respective segments and unprofitable ones could be sold. Jack Welch although celebrated as the Copenhagen, leader of the global manufacturer, always famous for the technological prowess, he utilized the actual human process in bringing change into the vast GE organization.

Showing respect to every individual because of the 17th century, essential force brought towards organizational change, Jack formed the model of extraordinary performance which each leader of paper roller a corporate may learn from. Under Jack’s leadership, the managers have a varied range of latitude that can help build the GE units in the entrepreneurial fashion. Being determined in harnessing the joint power of the employees of GE, Welch also had to redefine the correlation between subordinates and the boss. An individual being the source of innovation and creativity as written by Welch, people should have to agree that the century, better way that one can manage a group of people is by just going out of their own way. Welch developed a 4 E leadership model; the E’s here are acronyms to the following as discussed next. i. Welfare? Energy- ‘go, go, go’ is the motto of the individuals who have energy. These people have energy that is not bound and 17th english always get up early each day ready to face any job. ii. Energizers-these people know how to make others perform.

They always outline visions and in many occasions get people who will perform it. They know how to excite people about a crusade or a cause. High? They give others credit selflessly when thing are right but when wrong they accept responsibility quickly. iii. 17th Century? Edge-these are the great essay topics, competitive type. They know well how to make difficult decisions, for instance, hiring, promoting and firing stand their way. iv.

Execute-the essential one to the whole model. English? Without good results, other e’s have little use. The executers recognize when productivity and activity ain’t same. They are also capable of essay changing edge and energy into work and results. A Case study on the 2 -decade transformation of General Electric under the leadership of 17th century english Welch. In 1981, as the Chief Executive Officer, Jack Welch’s mission was to give more energy to the General Electric, one of the largest companies in America. By just reviewing the company’s mission and values, he made GE to experience an increase in the capital base from USD 24 billion to USD 74billion which formed a good base for vs low the readiness to 17th century english meet more competitors among other predicaments in the future.

He focused on the realignment of the objectives and state the motivation hence making the managers stretch to limits that were previously unknown. Firms that did not merit to 17th either the first or second positions in performance in the industrial development were met by blows such as divestment or faced closure. Though at high, some point he was termed as a destroyer, he is known to have caused a great impact in the restructuring of the GE to become one of the best corporate organizations globally. The management and motivation structure of Jack Welch entailed three major areas: i. He set the goals and prepared the firm on a corporate basis for the purposes of the competition challenges; ii. He also set to empower all the workers at all the levels of the organizations; and. iii. Ensuring that there was a communication of the new goals and visions via the whole organization by way of 17th communication tools, for roller coaster instance, extensive programs of training, forming new teams as well as the century, 3600 review processes. In the mind of Welch, he purposely had the vision of transforming and creating a firm which will have people at all the levels being held accountable for their deeds, and in the long run help in making decisions which will make the work better. His motive was not to control the employees but to liberate the workers. Welch termed this as forming an organization from barriers and one that will facilitate employees to paper roller designs have self-direction and motivation to enhance realization of their goals.

He had discovered that GE was being run the same way it was organized many years since its incorporation near the turn of century. Welch found out that the 17th century, company was specifically represented by an overwhelming nine stacks of management that lay between the arachnophobia, shop floor and the CEO. The bureaucracy enhanced a non-responsive and an inward focus in the company where the workers had a hell of time in 17th, communicating with one another. As a matter of fact, had it not been that Welch caused a massive cost restructuring in the GE, the analysts had projected that the GE would plunge into a hole of losses by the end of the year 1982. In addressing the issue of GE falling into unproductive business, Welch did a complete overhaul of the essay, management structure and thus eliminated all the layers of management, consolidated the jobs that seemed to overlap and the business units and made all the workers at every level to be held accountable for their work. Century? They put to a halt to gathering unnecessary data as relates to finances and also did away with reports that were regarded as unnecessary. Previously, the business managers usually requested for daily reports that contained much detail that often caused a chunk of a high stack of paper which made the arachnophobia, sheer mass of detailed pieces of information impossible to be mastered thus making the information useless. In relation to the firm equipment, the operators started being accountable for the quality and standard of their work thus reducing the essence of having the inspectors.

The net effect was that the workers had the chance of to 17th english get rid of the Elections Final Exam Essay, aspects of their work that was not productive as well as unnecessary. The most significant thing is 17th english that this has been the Work-Out plan that has led to the opening of the communication channels that helped the inception of innovative change. Currently, the Welch favors the Work-Out which to him is an empowerment concept. A great number of employees in Elections Course Final Exam Essay, GE get a chance to be together to share ideas and thoughts as well as the know-how amid building and fostering a creative and teamwork environment. Century English? The plan facilitates communicating within the high vs low, firm and responsibility with the 17th, ultimate goal being to drive above team performance. The rationale of giving the members the chance to table their ideas in the decision making was to promote individual openness and enable them to constructively challenge their leaders thus promoting a more motivated working environment. This was thus a management strategy that was a success to Welch. All the Work-Outs involved the follow-up activities where the commitments previously assigned were deliberated upon and the coaster designs, issue of accountability was enforced. The concept of empowerment has been of two types. First, the workers are actually satisfied by the fact that they are allowed to give out their concerns and second, the company has been able to benefit from the insights that are usually shared in the Work-Outs. Under the 17th, auspices of the CEO, Welch, the GE realized that people are not like machines however each person has the potential of enhancing productivity.

Knowledge of how best to use the human resource gives the company a competitive edge as well as making the worker feel an air of importance in gatsby essay, the process of production and 17th english generally feel motivated. In as much as it is hard to determine and measure the importance of empowerment, the GE has the belief that the company’s success in the future will ultimately indicate that it was a right move to have been made. The significant point is to investigate the way leaders like Welch is able to make the decisions that empowerment is the right mechanism and how they generally decide that as the best mechanism for their firms. In order to encourage the setting of roller goals and empowerment within the GE, Welch just needed to influence the establishment of vivid lines of century english communication in the firm. He had realized that many workers came to GE from different backgrounds and arachnophobia definition skills. However he did not want to take them for granted and reshaping them with the philosophy of GE but wanted them to be free thinkers. He encouraged the art of free thinking and therefore challenges the status quo. Century English? The concept of open communication is of essence in Copenhagen, GE since it facilitated his objective of motivating the workers to think outside the box. This is because the channels work in both directions and thus give the workers the century english, chance to air their grievances and thus work towards creating a consensus for action. It also helps in the motivation of the workers since that inculcates the feeling of directly contributing to arachnophobia the success of the company.

Cultural change processes. The Work-Out process in the GE was formed in 1988 as part of the english, drive for better productivity and definition efficiency. In the initial stages, the intention of the century, Work-Outs was for the identification and elimination of the unwanted processes that were left over from the past years where the management structure contained more layers. Upon the process of restructuring, a lot of groups performed more work with lesser workforce as compared to making comprehensive operational changes. The Work-Out process involved the identification of an area of need improvement and putting people together from all the sides of the design process, marketing process, production process as well as the sales process to identify a better method.

The Work-Outs discuss the issues and put some recommendations on record (Richard, 2009). The recommendations are then presented to the managers who are accountable such that they may accept or reject the proposals at the instance. The whole process leads to responsive leadership and a greater rate of change in the organization. During the inception of the Copenhagen Essay, Work-Out, numerous groups attacked the things that did not seem to make sense in the new GE. As the Work-Out plan underwent evolution, the customers and partners of 17th century supply were incorporated in the process.

The plan is great gatsby essay topics currently part of the day to day life in GE. Jack Welch will be remembered for english causing changes such as: ‘ Merger #038; Acquisition- he is remembered to have made around 200 mergers and acquisition with his first acquisition with Hungary Lighting in 1989 and the reason behind the success of the mergers was the incorporation of the integration model. This facilitated the future of GE. ‘ Delayering- on assuming office as CEO, Welch saw the arachnophobia definition, degree of the century, large bureaucracy in great gatsby topics, GE. There were a lot of managers and thus he embarked on the removal of the whole system of management which formed Welch’s hardware revolution. He dismantled the walls of separating the manufacturing and marketing functions within the GE. ‘ E-initiative- upon assuming office, Welch recommended that everything in the GE be made digital. This, according to english him, was an important step towards making the firm faster and agile.

The digitalization facilitated sales of up to USD 8 billion in 2000 through the arachnophobia definition, internet. The e- initiative also helped the GE to save on the operational costs. ‘ Globalization- According to him, GE should be moved to the global arena in order to enhance competition. 17th Century English? Therefore in 1980s, GE started a revolution to ensure placement of GE in the global markets. With the key growth initiative, the Copenhagen, concept of globalization has had a role in helping GE rise at almost a double digit in rates. Currently, globalization is 17th english a major component of the GE fabric. ‘ GE Six Sigma Quality Coach- GE is an essay topics, internet based mentoring program that facilitates in the training of the GE workforce on the quality initiative (Kim, 2009). This is a significant tool that helps GE achieve the Six Sigma Quality. ‘ Work-Out- this was Welch’s cultural initiative that was responsible for the changing of attitudes and behaviors within the GE.

The Work-Out made sure that the 17th century, management listened to employees giving them a voice the making of decisions. Work-Out is credited for having caused a culture devoid of boundaries which was helpful in creating GE’s learning engine. The few simple ideas that Jack’s attitude of management break into are; ensuring flow of free information in the whole organization, hierarchical break down and to encourage people to speak, hear and feel free to the new ideas. At the age of Copenhagen Essay 36 when Jack first became the vice president in GE he received every person’s call when a problem arose regardless of the persons post and this was the organization which Jack built in terms of organizational communication. Jack successful transformed the century english, contented behemoth to a strong company that is prepared to face the competition of the world. ‘ By getting out layers of the bureaucracy who are not necessary and organization flattening, Jack enlightened the Elections Exam Essay, employees and also empowering them in making decisions and an effect to their jobs, also the whole company. 17th? Also he relied on satisfaction slope and the stretch goals to push further to achievement of high vs low context new goals in the company. ‘ Relaying via the various communication means, motivational mediums and training there was an 17th century english, addition of empowerment. Welch also underlined all his words to accompany actions and coaster designs also exemplary attitude. By use of 3600 review process, suitable bonus schemes and the structural changes in the organization, Jack formed and started channels of communication at GE which allowed for networking that was unprecedented, openness and teamwork to be seen at GE.

‘ Every factor combined to 17th english form motivational force for all the employees in gatsby topics, GE. In turn, the motivation also leads to an outstanding performance in General Electric Corporation and Jack Welch. In conclusion, a leader is someone who guides other in doing what is required but does not command them. Transformation is all about the 17th, ability of the leader to be an arachnophobia, influential figure, motivational factor and the capability of empower others into putting an effort into effectiveness of their organizations. It is also clear that emerging approaches on century, leadership tend to be result-oriented and driven. Charismatic leader’s exhibit ambitious move and are aware of the main aims and Course Final are able to communicate effectively .leaders have Strong moral and century self-discipline. Charisma attracts people around and provides for chances of competition thus success attributive nature of leaders ten to link all happenings to specific cause. An approach of exchange relationship between leaders and the led bring closer faster development and goal achievement. Transformative leaders tend to be the roller, most popular type of leaders in that they forego personal need is for the benefit of the general community. Joseph G.2010. Residential Construction Management: Managing According to the Lifecycle.

J. 17th Century? Ross Publishing.pg121. Richard D.2009.Management. Cengage Learning.pp514-15. Credit Suisse (Research Institute).2012. Gender diversity and corporate performance. Zurich, Switzerland, 13 July 2012. Credit Suisse AG. Scott N . 2005. Executive Leadership for Effective Administration. Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Kim H. Arachnophobia Definition? 2009. Six Sigma for the New Millennium: A CSSBB Guidebook’s Quality Press. Marc H . 2004. High Performance Teams: How to Make Them Work. Greenwood Publishing Group. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Management essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and 17th we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Vs Low Context? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Management work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Management essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Jack Welch as a transformational leader . Available from: [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and 17th century english no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 21-12-16 - Public relations 06-11-16 - Total safety management 05-11-16 - Public Relations and Crisis Management in Tertiary Institutions 03-11-16 - Talent management 26-08-16 - Internal and external factors that can affect the supply chain management - Cultism in tertiary institution 28-07-16 - Organisational Behaviour 29-06-16 - Logistics survey 05-03-16 - Differences between leaders and managers 04-03-16 - Mass production of goods and Elections Course Essay work flow. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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Issues/Gang Violence term paper 5348. Gangs are a violent reality that people have to deal with in today's cities. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an acceptable and prestigious way to live? The long-range answer to 17th, these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the answers are much easier to Course Exam Essay, find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of human beings' personal wants and peer pressure. To determine how to effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only 17th be hypothesized. However, by looking at the way humans are influenced in society, I believe there is good evidence to point the blame at several institutions.

These include the forces of the media, the government, theatre, drugs and our economic system. Originally the high vs low, word gang had no negative connotation. 17th! In Old English, gang simply referred to a number of high vs low, people who went around together-a group. 17th Century! Today a gang can be defined in four basic ways: zh an organized group with a leader. zh a unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of high context, conflict.

zh a group whose members show unity through clothing, language. zh a group whose activities are criminal or threatening to 17th english, the larger society. Gangs are one of the results of poverty, discrimination and urban deterioration. Some experts believe that young people, undereducated and without access to good jobs, become frustrated with their lives and join gangs as an alternative to boredom, hopelessness and devastating poverty. Studies have attempted to determine why gangs plague some communities but there has been no definitive answer. As a result, people working to solve gang problems have great difficulty. They find the situation overwhelming, and vs low the violence continues. No groups completely fitting the above description of english, gangs existed in America until the early 1800s, but from the beginning of the European settlement in America there was gang-like activity, especially when class distinctions came into being.

Gang members tended to be from the poorer classes and tended to be from the same race or ethnic background. They banded together for protection, recreation or financial gain. The earliest identified American gangs formed after the Revolutionary War, which ended in 1783. They were known as Smith's Vly gang, the Bowery Boys, the Exam, Broadway Boys, and the Long Bridge Boys and the Fly Boys. The first three were white and the last two were African-American. Members were in their early teens and twenties but not all came from the lowest economic classes; nor were they necessarily criminals. It was not until the 19th century that criminal gangs first formed.

As the result of a worsening economy and growing population that increased competition for jobs, gangs began to century, specialize in crime and became a part of America's cities. Irish immigrants formed the state, first American criminal gangs in New York City. Some were criminals; some were brawlers and most associated in an area of New York called Five Points. They had dress codes and called their members by code nicknames. (Many of the gang rituals of 17th century english, today have their roots in this period.) The first Irish gang to have a recognized leader was the Forty Thieves, organized by Course Exam, Edward Coleman in 1826. Gangs also arose in the Bowery. English! These two sets of gangs brawled on paper roller designs a regular basis-over gang territory and ethnic differences. 17th! Sometimes the battles were so long and intense that the state examples, army had to be called in to stop them. The decade before the 17th english, Civil War was a heyday for most New York street gangs due to the all-out corruption of city government. Great Essay Topics! Gang membership swelled. 17th! Gangs burned ballot boxes, plundered stores and businesses and private homes without fear of police interference.

After the Civil War in 1865 New York records indicate a presence of Copenhagen, Jewish, Italian, African-American and Irish gangs. With the increase in immigrant populations, so grew gang membership. Almost every criminal of note in the United States made New York its headquarters. Chinese gangs appeared in California in the mid-1800s. Philadelphia reported gang activity as early as 1840 and between that time and 1870 became home to over 100 street gangs. During this time murder became a test of toughness and drugs (laudanum, morphine, cocaine) became a part of the gang scene. The level of violence escalated. The Whyos of Five Points used murder as a membership requirement. English! By the end of the 19th century gangs started wearing distinctive jackets. In the welfare state examples, early 1900s the U.S. economy worsened, the population grew at a rapid pace, and the gap between the rich and poor widened. All across the nation gangs appeared where poor, hopeless people lived.

The dawning of the 20th century also brought with it a widespread use of firearms. By mid 1920s there were 1313 gangs in Chicago and more than 25,000 members. Gang warfare in Chicago was widespread and fighting took place along ethnic, cultural and racial lines. Some gangs had no noticeable cultural, ethnic or national ties and consisted mostly of whites. The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of 17th, Chicano (Mexican-American) gangs in Los Angeles. High Vs Low! By the 1940s Chicano gangs established their place in Los Angeles-their zoot suits (a style of dress incorporating tapered pants, long wide-shoulder coats and broad-brimmed hats) had become a familiar sight. Fighting back against harassment of white residents and visiting soldiers during the so-called zoot suit riots in 1943 strengthened their cause.

After World War II gang membership: 1. became younger, 2. the nationality of the membership became largely non-white (though Italians, Irish and other white ethnic groups still made up a percentage), 3. drugs became a more publicized concern, 4. 17th! gang activity centered around large-scale, well-organized street fighting, 5. fire-arms were used more often,

6. the structure of organization became more rigid, 7. and society at large became concerned with gangs as a social problem and worked toward rehabilitation. Between 1941 and 1945 over Copenhagen, half a million Puerto Ricans arrived in century, the United States, most settling in New York City. During the 1920s the African American populations migrated from the welfare examples, South to 17th century english, the northern cities. Due, in part, to this influx of African-American and Puerto Rican into northern cities, the Post WWII period spawned the paper roller designs, greatest era of century english, youth gang activity in American gang history. Coaster Designs! The Old Italian, Jewish and Irish inhabitants became fearful that these groups were taking over. During the 1950s gang fighting rose to an all time high in 17th, cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles and Cleveland. Gang members were usually in welfare state, their teens. Codes of dress (black leather jackets were popular) and mannerisms were an important means of identification. 17th Century English! Body language said a lot about the nature of the gang.

When a gang decided to become a fighting, or bopping gang, its members immediately took on Copenhagen a different way of walking. A rhythmic gait characterized by century english, the forward movement of the head with each step. Terms for fighting were bopping, rumbling, jitterbugging. Great Gatsby Essay Topics! Gang members used guns, knives, and homemade weapons. Most common drugs-alcohol, marijuana, heroin.

New York gangs fought along racial lines-African-American, white, Puerto Rican. Usually they fought over girls or turf. English! Turf could be anything from a few blocks to an entire neighborhood. Gang members believed it was essential to protect the honor of their girlfriends. And in high vs low, the late 1950, girl gangs, with strong ties to boy gangs, began to form. Revenge was required by an inflexible code of 17th english, gang loyalty.

It was from such incidents that gangs drew their sense of pride, of great topics, being somebody. In order to combat the rise of 17th english, violence, organizations like the topics, New York City Youth Board sent social workers into the slums to form relationships with the gangs. In some cases it worked; in many it did not. The 1960s saw a decline in gang violence, in english, part because drug use escalated. Where there was more drug use there was less gang violence. America's attention also shifted to the civil rights movement, urban ghetto riots, Vietnam War protests. A new racial consciousness had its effect on local street gang, creating organizations that were more involved in communities. The Black Panthers arose in Oakland in state, 1968, the Black Muslims gained national prominence in the '60s and 17th century english a Puerto Rican gang, the Young Lords, formed in the early '70s. By early 1972 gangs were making headlines again. Drug use seemed to arachnophobia, be decreasing and violence increasing. Gang membership grew and 17th century the potential for violence was far greater for Final the gangs had access to century, weapons that no gang ever had before.

They did not make their headquarters in public places, but in private places. Gangs also acquired greater legal and political sophistication. When it is apparent that someone must be arrested for a crime, often the gang chooses a minor because his prison sentence will be shorter. Serving a term in jail helps boost his reputation. On the surface, peer pressure and paper roller coaster greed cause gangs. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by making it all sound glamorous. Money is century english, also a crucial factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is shown that s/he could make $200 to $400 for small part time gang jobs. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to great, make kids do things that are strongly against their morals. One of the ways that kids morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of television and movies.

The average child spends more time at 17th english, a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since nobody can completely turn off their minds, kids must be learning something while watching the TV. Very few hours of television watched by children are educational, so other ideas are being absorbed during this period of time. Many shows on television today are extremely violent. and are often shown this from great gatsby topics a gang's perspective. A normal adult can see that this is showing how foully that gangs are living. 17th Century! However, to a child this portrays a violent gang existence as acceptable. 'The Ends Justifies the Means' mentality is also taught through many shows where the good guy captures the bad guy through violence and is then being commended. A young child sees this a perfectly acceptable. because he knows that the arachnophobia, bad guy was wrong but has no idea of 17th century, what acceptable apprehension techniques are. Gore in television also takes a big part in influencing young minds. Copenhagen! Children see gory scenes and are fascinated by these things that they have not seen before.

Older viewers see gore and are not concerned with the blood but rather with the 17th english, pain the victim must feel. A younger mind doesn't make this. connection. Thus a gore fascination is formed, and has been seen in several of my peers. Unfortunately kids raised with this sort of great gatsby topics, television end up growing up with a stronger propensity to becoming a violent gang member or 'violent-acceptant' person. Gangs bring the delinquent norms of society into 17th, intimate contact with the individual.1, (Marshall B Clinard, 1963). So, as you can see if TV leads a child to arachnophobia, believe that violence is the norm this will manifest itself in the actions of the child quite often in a gang situation. This is especially the 17th english, case when parents don't spend a lot of time with their kids at roller coaster designs, the TV explaining what is century, right and what is wrong. Quite often newer books and some types of music will enforce this type of thought and ideas. Once this mentality is installed in youngsters they become increasingly prone to being easily pushed into a gang situation by any problem at home or elsewhere.

For instance, in poor families with many children or upper-middle class families where parents are always working, the children will often feel deprived of love. Parents can often feel that putting food on high context the table is enough love. Children of english, these families may often go to the gang firstly out of boredom and to belong somewhere. As time goes on, a form of Essay, love or kinship develops between the gang members and the child. It is then that the bond between the kid and the gang is completed because the gang has effectively taken the place of the family. The new anti social structure of cities also effects the ease in 17th century, which a boy/girl can join a gang. The formation of gangs in cities, and arachnophobia most recently in suburbs, is facilitated by the same lack of community among parents. The parents do not know what their children are doing for two reasons: First, much of the parents' lives are outside the local community, while the children's lives are lived almost totally within it.

Second, in a fully developed community, the network of 17th century english, relations gives every. parent, in a sense, a community of sentries who can keep him informed of his child's activities. Great Gatsby Topics! In modern living-places (city or suburban), where such a network is attenuated, he no longer has such sentries.2, (Merton Nisbet, 1971). In male gangs, problems occur as each of the members tries to be the century, manliest. Arachnophobia Definition! This often leads to all members participating in one-up-manship. Quite often this will then lead to each member trying to commit a bigger and more violent crime or simply more crimes than the others will. With all members participating in this sort of activity it makes for 17th english a never-ending unorganized violence spree (A sort of Clockwork Orange mentality). In gangs with more intelligent members these feelings end up making each member want to be the star when the groups commit a crime. This makes the gang much more organized and improves the morale of members which in turn makes them more dangerous and very hard for the police to deal with and paper designs catch (There is nothing harder to 17th century english, find and deal with than organized teens that are dedicated to the group). This sort of gang is usually common of middle or upper class people. although it can happen in gangs in the projects and other low rent districts too.

This one-up-manship is arachnophobia, often the reason between rival gangs fighting. All gangs feel powerful and they want to be feared. English! To do this they try to establish themselves as the only gang in a certain neighborhood. After a few gang fights hatred forms and gang murders and drive-by's begin to take place. When two gangs are at war it makes life very dangerous for Elections Course Final Essay citizens in the area. Less that 40% of drive-by's kill their intended victim yet over 60% do kill someone. 17th English! This gang application is one of the many reasons that sexual stereotypes and pressure to great, conform to the same must be stopped. Lastly one of the century, great factors in joining a gang is for welfare state protection. Although from an objective point of view, we can see joining a gang brings more danger than it saves you from, this is not always the way it is seen by kids.

In slums such as the century english, Bronx or the very worst case, Compton, children will no. doubt be beaten and robbed if they do not join a gang. State Examples! Of course they can probably get the same treatment from rivals when in a gang. The gang also provides some money for these children who quite often need to feed their families. The reason kids think that the gang will keep them safe is from propaganda from the gangs. Gang members will say that no one will get hurt and make a public show of revenge if a member is hurt or killed. People in low rent areas are most often being repressed due to poverty and most importantly, race. This often results in an attitude that motivates the person to base his/her life on doing what the system that oppresses them doesn't want. Although this accomplishes little it is a big factor in gang enrollment. So, as you have seen gangs are a product of the environment we have created for ourselves.

Some of these factors include oppression, the century, media, and arachnophobia definition greed, violence and other gangs. There seems to be no way to end the problem of gangs without totally restructuring the modern economy and value system. 17th! Since the chance of this happening is minimal, we must learn to Copenhagen, cope with gangs and try to keep their following to a minimum. Unfortunately there is no real organized force to century, help fight gangs. Of course the police are supposed to do this but this situation quite often deals with racial issues also and the police forces regularly display their increasing inability to high, deal fairly with these issues. What we need are more people to form organizations like the Guardian Angels a gang-like group that makes life very tough for street gangs that are breaking laws. American Psychological Association. Century! Internet Web-Site. Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life?

4 April 2000. Graves, Chris. A?A§Research to Guide Crackdown: Study Analyses Explosion in Course Exam, Violence.A?A? Minneapolis Star Tribune 17 June 1997: 01B. Haskins, James. Street Gangs: Yesterday and Today. New York: Hastings House, 1975. Lewis, Yablonsky. Century English! Gangsters: 50 Years of Madness.

New York University Press, 1997. Opinion. A?A§Urban Perspective: The Peace Process Network.A?A? Los Angeles Sentinel 25 November 1998: A7. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and arachnophobia definition professional projects. Every paper is english, written from scratch based on your instructions and there is roller, no plagiarism of any kind. 17th Century! Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the great gatsby essay topics, entire process and will receive the paper by century english, e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and high vs low context will remain your unique property for a lifetime.

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