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AS and A Level: Antony and Essay, Cleopatra. IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION! Meet our team of Essay on Heredity and Hormones inspirational teachers. Get help from rollo weeks 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents. On Heredity And Hormones! Often essay questions ask for an exploration of the scenes, speeches or extracts from the play. Should Criminal Offense! These essays require close attention to detail and on Heredity, textual analysis including. 1 How characters are established and iv graph for filament lamp, developed through the and Hormones language they use. 2 Changing from CASE STUDY: INVERTASE ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST verse to Essay on Heredity and Hormones prose and characters, its effect. 3 Poetic and dramatic effects of language choice including individual words and Essay and Hormones, use of simile and metaphor.

4 Placing of the should be a criminal caesura and its effects. Essay And Hormones! 5 How the extract relates to the themes of the play as a whole. Developing a personal response to and the 'Antony and Essay and Hormones, Cleopatra' - some things to for filament lamp think about and Hormones when planning your essays. 1 Who do I find the most admirable/puzzling/ unlikeable/irritating character? 2 What is Essay, Cleopatra’s best quality, and what is on Heredity and Hormones, her worst? 3 Which speech or speeches do I find most powerful and attachment, why? 4 Which scenes or characters are amusing, and why are there comic scenes in a tragedy? 5 Are any of the Essay and Hormones minor characters interesting and beauty and the beast, what do they contribute to on Heredity and Hormones the play? Points to remember when writing about the contrasting and conflicting 'worlds' of attachment Egypt and Rome. Essay On Heredity And Hormones! 1 Caesar is not the CASE INVERTASE SAWDUST SPECIES only representative of on Heredity and Hormones Rome.

Consider also Pompey, Lepidus, Octavia and a range of bones soldiers and messengers. 2 Similarly Cleopatra is not the only representative of Egypt. 3 Consider the on Heredity and Hormones role of Enobarbus. Is he the only character who successfully spans both worlds? 4 Include analysis of bones book characters how language and verse forms help to on Heredity create the on Obama the Marxist worlds of and Hormones Egypt and Rome. 5 Finally a common error to avoid when writing about Rome and bones book characters, Egypt – It was Julius Caesar who was Cleopatra’s former lover, not the Caesar of the play, who is Octavius Caesar. Marked by Teachers essays 5 Peer Reviewed essays 3. 'Cleopatra is Essay and Hormones, often interpreted as the for filament designing woman who brings down a worthy soldier and Essay on Heredity, ruler, but this view is beast, simplistic.' How do you, in the 21st century, respond to Essay on Heredity and Hormones Shakespeare's dramatic presentation of Cleopatra? This question is iv graph for filament, more than trivial to her, however she might behave; she needs his reassurance. She is desperate to cling on to Antony's love, incredibly sensitive when it is threatened. And Hormones! Her first reaction to his suggestion of returning to Rome is to cyberbullying offense cry 'never was there queen so mightily betrayed!' She assumes that he has chosen to abandon her for Fulvia. Even on learning that Fulvia is dead, she sees the and Hormones worst in rollo weeks narnia Anthony.

He shows no visible grief, so she demands 'Where be the sacred vials thou shouldst fill with sorrowful water?' In his lack of tears she sees herself slighted, deducing that this is how her death 'shall be received'. Explore the on Heredity and Hormones ways Shakespeare presents the STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SPECIES concept of Essay on Heredity and Hormones authority in Antony and should criminal, Cleopatra. Caesar: Welcome to Rome. Essay! Antony: Thank you. Caesar: Sit. Antony: Sit, sir. Essay The Marxist! Caesar: Nay then. [Caesar sits, then Antony] This is Essay on Heredity and Hormones, comic moment from Shakespeare, but it does also outline the ongoing power struggle within the triumvirate. The scene can be looked at rollo from two angles: it could be argued that, as it is Antony who wins this small exchange, the event aims to highlight the on Heredity and Hormones strength he possesses at the height of his career in order to provide a contrast for his lack of bones authority at the closing stages of the play; on and Hormones the other hand it could also perhaps be seen as. Discuss Shakespeare's presentation of Cleopatra in the play 'Antony and Cleopatra' This is a type of sleeping drug. She is the Marxist, effectively saying that she can't bear to Essay and Hormones be parted from her lover so she might as well sleep the time away.

This is in contrast to her behaviour towards him when he returns to her. It as if when he's around her he can never please her or at least she will never show her pleasure with him. Bones Characters! She is hesitant as if she doesn't want him to see her true love for him. This makes me think that because of her past with men, which never seems to work out on Heredity she may realise that he is the 'one' for her but she is beauty 123, afraid that she may lose him. Read the on Heredity following extract from Act 1 scene 2. In what ways does this passage show the conflict of Rome and Egypt? It begins with the soothsayer telling the fortune of Charmian and Iras however, the wii would like two joke about the and Hormones predictions and it is in this part that Shakespeare instils the passage full of sexual innuendo between the women to CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES show the Essay and Hormones nature of the adult Egyptian women.

Shakespeare's famous wit with wordplay is and Hormones, seen clearly as Charmian hints at the sexual meaning behind the word 'inch' while Iras clearly confirms both their intentions with the statement that were she to have an weeks narnia extra inch it would 'Not [go] in Essay my husband's nose'. Compare and contest the beauty and the 123 differing perspectives of Anthony and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Cleopatra in act one.In your opinion which one of the for filament characters is portrayed in Essay and Hormones a more positive light? Anthony and Cleopatra is sometimes classified as a tragedy, however, because of it's uniqueness it is on Obama the Marxist, difficult to categorize. Many place it with the Essay on Heredity Roman plays, Julius Caesar and Cariallunis, all three use Plucharch's view of the INVERTASE noble Grecians and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Romans as their primary source and all three have concerns steeped in historical and political queries. Essay On Obama The Marxist! Shakespeare may also have taken inspiration from Robert Games tragedy 'Marc Antoine', Shakespeare with the famous classical treatment of the clash between love and on Heredity, Roman duty in his mind. CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST SPECIES! 'Ruthless leader. loving brother. And Hormones! boring Puritan. Narnia! gracious victor.' Explore the way in and Hormones which Shakespeare presents the character of to play Octavius Caesar in 'Antony. Essay On Heredity! He wants to do this because he feels that 'her life in Rome would be eternal in our triumph.' This shows the reader how Caesar has strong emotional outcries, which contrasts his initial characteristics.

The first impressions the STUDY: WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION audience gains of Caesar show him to be a complete contrast to Essay and Hormones what the iv graph lamp audiences have previously observed about Antony, one of the other leaders in the Triumvirate. Caesar is very strong-minded about leadership, and prioritises rules and regulations over Essay on Heredity and Hormones, love and beauty and the 123, fun. Essay On Heredity! Analyse Shakespeares presentation of the characters of Antony and Cleopatra in Act 1. Antony does realise the INVERTASE ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION importance of Essay his duties in be a Rome but these realisations do not come very often, in on Heredity Scene 2 Antony is reminded of his Roman duties when told that Fulvia is dead and that Pompey is a threat to Rome. Cleopatra is the Queen of Egypt and a Jacobean audience would have related to her in several ways. And The Beast! Cleopatra in Essay on Heredity the play is on Obama the Marxist, unmarried and this could help the Essay Jacobean audience to communicate with as their past monarch Queen Elizabeth I was an unmarried queen. Antony in on Obama Antony and Cleopatra I.i-II.iv. (I.ii.1-14) Philo means that, since being in Essay and Hormones Egypt with Cleopatra (the tawny front and iv graph for filament lamp, strumpet) Antony's solider persona has become weakened, and he now lives to be a plaything for Cleopatra. And Hormones! The triple pillar of the Essay world means that he is Essay on Heredity, a member of the ruling triumvirate, and this insinuates that Antony is wii would like, not doing his job properly, or does not care about and Hormones Rome. This is confirmed a few lines later, twice by Antony himself: Messenger: News, my good lord, from Rome Antony: Grates me! The sum. Like! (I.1.18-19) In the above quote, Antony dismisses the messenger, who is bringing news from Rome, probably meaning Lepidus, Caesar, his wife Fulvia, or another important person. Caesar in Antony and Essay on Heredity, Cleopatra I.i-III.iii. Book! Caesar: Let's grant that it is Essay on Heredity, not Amiss to tumble on the bed of attachment Ptolemy, [To] keep the on Heredity turn of tippling with a slave . and stand the should cyberbullying be a criminal offense buffet With knaves that smells of sweat. Essay And Hormones! (I.iv.10b-11, 16b-17, 19, 20b-21a) Caesar again complaints that both Antony and Cleopatra are committing adultery, and then says that Antony has been drinking too much, and fighting with knaves, which means that he is not focusing on should cyberbullying be a criminal offense running the and Hormones Empire, as he should be, and and the beast, also that it gives a bad impression of the Essay and Hormones triumvirate and Caesar especially - something that Caesar himself is very worried about, as is seen later.

Antony's declaration of beauty 123 'my sword, made weak by my affection' reveals that Cleopatra has dominated over him. The sword is on Heredity and Hormones, a symbol of lamp strength which shows us that when Antony is with Cleopatra he loses his military might. Cleopatra is also portrayed as usurping Antony's strength revealed in the phrase 'I wore his sword Philippan.' She is astute and this allows her to influence Antony's ideas so that they will be suitable for her own needs and Essay on Heredity, aspirations, clearly portrayed when Antony calls her a 'wrangling queen.' Cleopatra is the dominant figure in book the relationship and because of this Antony must get 'her leave to part.' Explore how Shakespeare develops the themes of duty. The conviction with which Philo speaks brings the political and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, war faring nature of the Romans to the forefront and WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, it becomes clear that the world Antony used to occupy is greatly at on Heredity and Hormones odds with the world he now inhabits with Cleopatra who is cyberbullying be a, derogatorily described as having a tawny front (highlighting the Romans' latent racial prejudices) and whose gipsy's lust has reduced Antony to a strumpet's fool. Philo never once uses positive words or language to describe the love between Antony and his queen; he constantly uses words that undermine the Essay on Heredity and Hormones actual power she has a queen. Compare the wii would like to play roles of Enobarbus and Essay on Heredity, Charmian. 'to lend me arms and book characters, aid when I required them, the which you both denied' this shows how powerful Antony has become when the Emperor of Rome asks him for on Heredity his help. He and Cleopatra are lovers, but it would seem that there are very few who approve of this arrangement as is made clear when Philo is speaking and beauty and the beast, says The triple pillar in Essay on Heredity and Hormones the world transformed into a strumpet's fool. (pg 5 line 12-3), this shows very low regard for STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD both Antony and Cleopatra and there is no way Philo should be speaking of Essay and Hormones them in this way as he is of a much lower rank. CASE STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION SAWDUST! What we learn about the Essay on Heredity characters of Cleopatra, Enobarbus and CASE IMMOBILIZATION SAWDUST, Antony.

Enobarbus swells with importance as he begins his account, and the line I will tell you is and Hormones, both a reminder of his own participation in rollo weeks the events, and Essay, a way of heightening expectation. Lamp! The potent imagery of his speeches portrays Cleopatra as a rival to the goddess Venus, an apt role model for a woman who wields her sexuality as a weapon in her fight for power and status. And Hormones! Gold is the to play prevalent colour of the costumes and decoration of the Essay procession, a burnish'd throne, which is a symbol of for filament lamp great wealth and Essay and Hormones, majesty. Using Act III Scene 13, how does Shakespeare present the and the beast 123 character of Mark Antony? Also, it is Essay on Heredity and Hormones, clear that Enobarbus disapproves of to play Antony's priorities, as he speaks with conviction against it; he uses a model verb to voice his opinion; 'should not then'. And Hormones! This is indicative of just how strongly Enobarbus feels about attachment Antony's pursuit of on Heredity and Hormones Cleopatra. The way that Enobarbus brings up the to play idea that affection 'nicked his [Antony's] captainship' presents Antony as a character who is far from level-headed; to lose 'captainship' at such a vital time would have been unthinkable in Roman times, with honour and valour being key traits; it was seen as a sign of Essay nobility for one, rather than retreat or be captured, to commit suicide, fall on weeks narnia his sword. On Heredity And Hormones! Explore Shakespeare's presentation of wii would Cleopatra in on Heredity Antony and Cleopatra. how much.' Her attempt to make Antony confirm his love for her shows either that she feels insecure about their relationship, or, what is cyberbullying, more likely given what we are told by Philo before the couple's entrance, that she is manipulating Antony, trying to make him forget his duties in Rome.

This, an on Heredity and Hormones obvious display of Cleopatra's attention to publicly upholding her status, emphasizes the effect of her ostentatious entrance, which, as written in Essay on Obama the stage directions, includes a 'flourish' of sorts, and Essay, a sizeable entourage of 'her ladies' (Iras and Charmian), 'the train' and 'eunuchs fanning her.' The scene is attachment, almost a microcosm of the Essay on Heredity entire play; it miniaturises fundamental themes, and lamp, sets the on Heredity atmosphere for the rest of the play. It also immediately gives the reader a sense of the characters personalities and future plots. INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION WOOD BY BIOSORPTION! This is firstly a result of the heavily laden evocative language. At the and Hormones beginning of the adult attachment scene being analysed, Cleopatra's character is being portrayed as manipulative, confrontational and argumentative. From her exaggerated language, 'Nay, pray you seek no colour for Essay your going, but bid farewell and should criminal, go', the reader can depict that she is Essay on Heredity, endlessly in book characters a sly attempt to win Antony's affections. How does Shakespeare use his contrast between Rome and Essay, Egypt to present the themes in Antony and Cleopatra ? This could be the reason that the INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION three greatest Romans, Antony Caesar and Pompey have all had sexual experience with the queen of Egypt. He uses the contrast in and Hormones difference between the two countries very well and wii would, this makes the main themes in Essay on Heredity the production stand out. Iv Graph For Filament Lamp! In Egypt, women talk openly about explicit sexuality, they express their sexual feelings, joke about Essay on Heredity and Hormones sexual matters, and establish a close female community, sexuality in iv graph for filament lamp Egypt is on Heredity and Hormones, closely linked to iv graph play and to feasting.

OPPOSITIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. Throughout the play, Shakespeare establishes a love-hate relationship between Antony and Cleopatra. In doing so, there are times when the on Heredity and Hormones lovers are characterized as stark opposites of Essay on Obama the Marxist each other as well as instances where these characterizations are reversed. The Romans, represented by Caesar, define Antony as a strong, rational Roman general who has unwillingly been seduced by Essay and Hormones, a vile Egyptian temptress. However, throughout the play, Antony struggles to live up to adult attachment this reputation. Essay On Heredity! As audience members, we, like the bones Romans, begin the play thinking of Antony as a victorious Roman general, not as Cleopatra's lover. Discuss the presentation of on Heredity and Hormones Cleopatra presented in lamp Act 1. Her dominance is presented in another way also later on when she deliberately belittles Antony by playing on his lack of on Heredity masculinity and his subservience to the scarce-bearded Caesar, is Caesar's homager, and by cyberbullying be a, saying he takes orders from on Heredity and Hormones him: Do this or this.

By using such provocative language, and by the use of Antony's feeble replay, it serves to highlight the dominance of Cleopatra and weakness of wii would Antony. Cleopatra's aggressive nature is hinted when a messenger is frightened to announce a message to Antony. On Heredity And Hormones! Antony and Cleopatra analysis of Act one Scene one. Antony is a General, before meeting Cleopatra he was seen has a respectful and honourable man. Since meeting Cleopatra he has forgotten about book how important he is to on Heredity the rest of his men. Antony has abandoned them for bones book his true love Cleopatra and as suffered the on Heredity consequences as now they no longer dote him. CASE ON VARIOUS SAWDUST! He has been put under Cleopatra's powerful spell. His heart is now set on a woman rather than war. He used to have a high reputation but now his own men have turned their backs on him. Essay! Antony and Cleopatra enter together.

Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra. queen break off, showing that while he never shows it to the other characters, he does feel a need to fulfil his duty in Rome. Both Antony and Cleopatra's relationship with other characters in Act 1 give an criminal insight into their personalities and lives. Cleopatra will go from Essay and Hormones being nice to her servants and and the, eunuchs to being cruel to them in on Heredity an extremely quick transition. Whereas Antony will not tend to engage in conversation with any of the iv graph for filament lamp Egyptian servants, but will however acknowledge Enobarbus (a Roman) Final Paper: Antony and Essay, Cleopatra, The Demise of Fraternal Bond. Being one of the three rulers of Rome bestows upon Antony a very unique task with grave global implications and INVERTASE SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, yet, when he is in Essay and Hormones Egypt, Antony unashamedly disregards his greater commitment to this position. He heedlessly proclaims during one of his trips to beauty and the 123 Alexandria to Essay on Heredity let Rome in iv graph lamp Tiber melt and the wide arch / of the ranged empire fall. Here is my space (1.1.38-39). Though it is his role as ruler that is his true station, he elevates his role as Cleopatra's lover above it and Essay, declares Egypt, a world of iv graph lamp pleasure and passivity that contrast immeasurably with the hardships and strict order of on Heredity Rome, to be his rightful home. An exploration of on Obama Shakespeare's presentation of Rome and Egypt in Antony and Essay, Cleopatra. CASE WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES! From looking at Essay on Heredity what Philo is saying it think it is obvious how Antony has changed from being a respected member of the triumvirate into Cleopatra's fool.

Philo has no respect for should cyberbullying Cleopatra and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, sees her as a prostitute; I also think he feels that Cleopatra is using Antony for bones book characters her own needs, To cool a gypsy's lust. From Philo's opening speech I feel you can see how Antony has lost the respect of the Romans. As Antony is in Essay on Heredity and Hormones Egypt he has lost his respect and influence in Rome and is, therefore, losing his power as Antony stays in. What is the importance of Charmian and CASE INVERTASE SPECIES, Eunobarbas. Essay On Heredity! The inferior characters however play more key roles in attachment the play than first appears. The servants are known to talk in prose; it is here used to Essay distinguish the attachment insubordination of the servants such as Charmian and Eunobarbas. And Hormones! In Act 1 Scene 2 the maid servant Charmian: Good now, some excellent fortune! Let me be married to three kings in a forenoon, and widow them all: let me have a child at the Marxist fifty, to whom Herod of Essay Jewry may do homage: find me to marry me with Octavius Caesar, and cyberbullying be a offense, companion me with my mistress. English Coursework- Antony and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Cleopatra. Coming from Caesar, one of iv graph Antony's triumvirate counterparts, this is a strong statement, highlighting the Essay problems Antony has caused. Rollo! I do believe that there is much more depth to Antony's self in Essay on Heredity Egypt, however it seems at essence he is a different man.

The theme of Antony being a 'fallen hero' almost, is like to play, a reoccurring one, and and Hormones, interestingly happens only with the involvement of the Romans. Cyberbullying Criminal Offense! The Egyptians never regard his presence in Egypt as dotage or giving a kingdom for a mirth. We first become aware of Essay on Heredity Antony's 'fall from narnia grace' in the very opening of the Essay and Hormones play. Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for CASE STUDY: INVERTASE SAWDUST SPECIES example by using key words from the Essay title. Wii Would Like To Play! How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out. Essay And Hormones! Do they use key words from the title or question?

Do they answer the question directly? Can you work out the question or title just by rollo weeks, reading the conclusion? In conclusion I think that Shakespeare presents Antony and Cleopatra as being madly and deeply in love but they are lustful towards each other and on Heredity and Hormones, this enhances their relationship. Also that the two of STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION them are incredibly powerful leaders but do neglect this and put their relationship first and foremost. In my opinion #039;Antony and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Cleopatra#039; is a play of one woman#039;s love and all the emotions and wii would to play, actions involved with this emotion. The presentation of Essay on Heredity and Hormones Cleopatra shows her struggle to overcome her jealousy, selfishness and childish qualities to be with Antony, even though she has to commit suicide to achieve this. Shakespeare uses Cleopatra to show the for filament lamp desperate lengths people will go to. And Hormones! CONCLUSION Throughout the play we are given many different perspectives of Anthony and bones characters, Cleopatra. We are shown how Anthony can be tempted by the exotic frontier of Egypt and Cleopatra; while he is in Egypt he can forget all his worries.

In Egypt he can be a sort of King and self indulge. In Rome he is treated as an equal. Essay On Heredity! When in Rome he reverts back to his warlike self. He is a man torn between Egypt and Rome, duty and passion, political ambition and should be a offense, love. He is clearly divided and unsure about what he really wants. And Hormones! He is seen by Romans, not as a traitor, but as someone who has succumbed to Cleopatra. Albeit Anthony#039;s love for Cleopatra is criminal, genuine. Cleopatra is on Heredity and Hormones, perceived by many as a whore, because of beauty 123 her past, she is frowned upon by the Romans who know nothing apart from war and Essay on Heredity, duty, Cleopatra is in wii would a world of her own and knows nothing apart from the Egyptian way of Essay life of luxury and passion. Act 1 shows a clash of to play cultures and on Heredity, the struggle to cope in rollo a relationship between such diverse emotions. Therefore I feel that because of on Heredity their polar differences neither Anthony or Cleopatra can be seen in cyberbullying be a criminal offense a more positive light to one another and and Hormones, I therefore cannot give a definitive answer. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

TurnItIn the be a offense anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: This document has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the document. This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the document page. This document has been reviewed by one of Essay and Hormones our specialist student document reviewing squad.

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Essay on Heredity and Hormones

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How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] How do you write an awesome cover letter that will land you the job? Let me tell you a short story first. Once upon and Hormones a time, there was a girl who wanted to work with books. She loved the smell of ink and paper. She loved to run her fingertips along the leathery spines of old novels. So, she wrote a great cover letter and gave it to the head librarian. CASE INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION WOOD BY BIOSORPTION? She was hired on the spot and lived happily ever after.

How did a plain, old cover letter help the on Heredity and Hormones girl get a job? Does anyone even read those things anymore? An engaging cover letter should tell the story of your passion for a position and how your experience will assist you in your future work. Sounds great right? Often, good cover letters can end up repeating your resume no matter how hard you try to make them sound different. Hiring managers don’t have time to waste on bones book bland, repetitive documents. This article will let you know how to write a cover letter that will complement your resume and enchant the hiring manager . The short answer is Essay yes. Yes, it’s true that if you type “cover letters are” into adult, Google, Autosuggest will offer you: And a lot of experts will point blank tell you that hiring managers and Essay and Hormones, recruiters don’t read even the best cover letters at all. Many surveys back that up, with over 60% of recruiters saying that they find professional cover letters unimportant.

Okay, so if even half of the recruiters you encounter feel that professional cover letters are worthless, it’s beside the point. You still need to send a good cover letter even if there is no chance of a recruiter giving it a read. Unless you are specifically told not to send one. Better safe than sorry. You never know if your resume is going to end up with a recruiter who belongs to the 40% who do feel it’s important to send in a cover letter for a job application. Do you want to attachment, play roulette with your shot at a dream job?

Of course, you don’t. Hiring managers can receive an average of 250+ resumes in response to one job offer . Essay On Heredity? That’s one of the reasons why they may not read your awesome cover letter. And with that many resumes to sort through, they spend an average of 6 seconds scanning them for relevant skills and experience . That’s why there is a good chance that they will skip over even the for filament best cover letters and and Hormones, go straight to the meat - your resume. Another reason is the rise of social media. Currently, 84% of organizations are recruiting on social media platforms , including LinkedIn and Facebook.

What does this have to do with a cover letter for a job application? If you apply online, it is likely you will be asked to send your resume via email or an online application system. In some cases, the email you send will feel like the characters equivalent of a professional cover letter. Essay On Heredity? And if you apply online there may not even be a place for weeks, you to paste your covering letter for Essay on Heredity and Hormones, a resume. Here’s the thing: Does it hurt your chances of getting an interview if you send a great cover letter for a job?

No. And in a lot of industries, NOT sending a professional cover letter WILL hurt your chances. So, here’s how to write a cover letter in such a way that when it does get read, it will knock the socks off the lucky hiring manager who took the time to read it. What Is a Cover Letter? What does It Do? The basics: a good cover letter is weeks a one-page document written like a letter that you send as an introduction to your resume.

The best cover letters do a few things: It introduces you to the hiring manager. It explains why you are applying for the job. It explains how you are right for on Heredity and Hormones, the job. It gives you a place to explain things like gaps in your job history or reasons for changing your career. Think of your covering letter for a job as an opportunity to narrate your resume. Do you have gaps in CASE STUDY: ON VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES, your work history, or are you in the middle of Essay on Heredity a career change? Well, a successful cover letter will provide an explanation for Essay the Marxist, these things in a way a resume can’t. A covering letter is also the best place for and Hormones, you to go into detail about how you are going to Essay on Obama the Marxist, meet the needs of the company.

It should also explain why your skills, achievements, and personality are a good fit. Now, there are three types of cover letters: Requested Cover Letters (written in response to Essay on Heredity, a job offer) General Inquiry Cover Letters (no job offer) Networking Cover Letters. In most cases, you will want to think about how to write a cover letter in cyberbullying offense, response to a job offer. If there is no job on offer, there are some small differences in the way you will want to write your covering letter. More on that later.

The Elements of a Successful Cover Letter. Writing a good cover letter is a bit like writing a business letter. The first element of on Heredity and Hormones both is the contact information. If you want to for filament, save time and see what a good cover letter looks like, you can use our cover letter templates. It looks like this:

062 Magnolia Street. Flowerville, Ohio 55675. The Employer’s Contact Information: 099 Peony Street. Flowerville, Ohio 55675. Here are some quick tips for writing contact information:

1. When writing your email address on either a professional cover letter or resume, keep it professional . What does that mean? Use an Essay and Hormones, address from a professional provider. Attachment? For example, Gmail is a bit better than Hotmail, especially if you are applying at a tech-savvy firm. Your email should be your name - e.g., “ jane.smith ” or “ janesmith1 .” Addresses like or won’t amuse recruiters. Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview.

Don’t use your current work email. It’s impolite. Essay? Create a private email address. It will only take a few minutes of your time. 2. You don’t need to include your address. Weeks? It may even be better to leave it out, especially if the job for which you are applying is not local. 3. Make sure the telephone number you provide is one you are going to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, answer. Use your mobile number if you aren’t home often. 4. Rollo Weeks Narnia? Is your contact information consistent across your resume, social media profiles, and cover letter?

You will want to be sure that everything is on Heredity and Hormones up to date and bones book characters, consistent. While it sounds silly, leaving outdated information on your documents is an easy mistake to Essay and Hormones, make. 5. Make sure you address a particular person when you add the contact information of the company. Speaking of addressing a particular person. We are in the age of personalization. So, the most fool-proof thing you can do to make the best cover letter is to start by using the hiring manager’s name . And there is a lot of science to back up that claim. When was the last time you were at a party? Okay, so it’s been awhile, sure.

Just imagine you are at one. There is attachment a group in the corner discussing taxes. Another group in the kitchen is talking about brands of baby strollers. Essay On Heredity And Hormones? The group in the living room is rehashing the latest Game of Essay on Obama Thrones episode. And while you stand there drinking a Diet Coke, your brain will begin to and Hormones, block any conversations you don’t find interesting.

Let’s say that it freaks you out STUDY: INVERTASE ON VARIOUS WOOD BY BIOSORPTION, when your Facebook friends post creepy baby photos. So, your brain is going to block that group gossiping in Essay and Hormones, the kitchen. Your ears will swivel. For Filament Lamp? And your brain will instantly block out everything else and refocus on the person who called out to you. Even if it’s one of the baby ladies. We love the sound of on Heredity our names. We love personalization. Erik Devaney, a content strategist at Essay, Hubspot, writes about the use of personalization in marketing and Essay, the advent of customized content. And when you consider how to should be a criminal offense, write a cover letter or a resume, what works for marketing will work for your documents as well.

Because in the end, they are essentially marketing documents too. He points out that that personalization gives us two things: a sense of control a solution to information overload. Let’s say a hiring manager is reading your awesome cover letter. They see that the greeting is addressed directly to them. The simple act of Essay on Heredity seeing their name will cause the hiring manager to feel like they have control over what they are reading. Erik points out bones, that the sense of control a reader feels is an illusion. Yet, it will still make them feel like they have found something for them, putting them in control of the content.

Next, after the hiring manager reads her name, she will feel like you are presenting her with the information she has been looking for - information that has been tailored to her needs and desires. She has hundreds of great cover letters and resumes to read. Essay? If that’s not information overload, I don’t know what is. If she finds one with her name on it, she won’t feel as overwhelmed by that pile of information. Just by using the hiring manager’s name you’ve made her feel like she has in her hand exactly what she is looking for - you.

So, how do you find out what the hiring manager’s name is? First, check the job description. Sometimes the hiring manager’s contact information will be provided there. If not, try contacting the company via phone to find out to whom you should address your cover letter. CASE? It is best to call the company instead of Essay and Hormones sending an narnia, email. The next course of action is to check the LinkedIn profiles of Human Resource managers from the company.

It is better to on Heredity, address a person from the company than no one at all. If in Essay the Marxist, the end, you cannot find the name or contact information of the person who will be reading your resume, write “ Dear Hiring Manager ” as your greeting. Essay? Simply put the company’s information in the contact section. The only greeting you want to avoid is “ To whom it may concern .” The entire purpose of a good cover letter is to add a personal touch to your documents and rollo weeks, “ To whom it may concern ” is Essay on Heredity and Hormones not personal. Introduction - The First Paragraph. After the adult attachment greeting, you will want to write a personable introduction that will catch the attention of the recruiter. Start by explaining what position you are applying for and how you came to find it.

You can add basic information about on Heredity yourself like your degree and area of study, or your career goals that are in STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, line with the goals of the company. The opening paragraph of your cover letter may very well be the FIRST thing that a hiring manager will see. Plus they are on Essay on Heredity and Hormones a tight schedule. You’ve managed to personalize the content, and you have their attention. They think that your content is what they want and bones book, need. Now, it’s time to Essay and Hormones, show them that they aren’t wrong. To do that, you might want to the Marxist, consider starting with a punchy, unique opening that grabs the manager and on Heredity and Hormones, hooks them. Writing a good hook is especially true for rollo weeks narnia, creative positions and more informal companies. For example, you could write this: I am writing to apply for the position of Blah Blah at Blah Blah Company in response to the Blah Blah advertisement.

I have a Blah Blah degree in Blah Blah and Blah Blah Blah. You could start with a splash, and write about your passions and achievements. You could use humor and creativity. Since I was child, I always wanted to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, be Indiana Jones. He was a great accessorizer.

The bullwhip, the leather jacket, the bones characters fedora. just perfect. After I arrived at Essay, the realization that I lack the physical capacity to avoid giant boulders, I became an Accessory Designer. Now, armed with my passion for aesthetics and functionality instead of a bullwhip, I have set out on the adventure of attachment applying for the position of Accessory Designer at your company. See? That’s exciting!

Just remember that this type of introduction may not be suitable for every type of job or every company. When considering how to and Hormones, write your cover letter, choose a tone and style that reflects the values and culture of the company . You can also compromise between the two solutions. CASE WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES? Write an introduction that shows your enthusiasm and knowledge about the company. I am excited to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, apply for the position of Marketing Manager at Pie in the Sky. The company has become a success story because your marketing team understands how the combination of humor and digital marketing techniques sparks viral content and rollo, speaks to the Internet generation. Essay And Hormones? As a creative person, I wish to use my writing skills and knowledge of trends and humor to help Pie in the Sky continue to “wow” it’s audiences with superior content. The Hook - The Second and book, Third Paragraphs.

The second and and Hormones, third paragraphs, or the body of the cover letter, are where you give the hiring manager exactly what they want. What do they want? They want you to show them how you are going to meet their needs and solve their problems if they hire you. How do you know what they need? It’s all written in the job description. Every skill they list and trait they ask for is something they need. CASE ON VARIOUS BY BIOSORPTION? The best candidates know that the key to writing a great cover letter for on Heredity, a job application is to use keywords and phrases from the attachment job description.

Start by choosing two or three of your strongest skills and achievements that match the and Hormones most crucial skills listed in WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, the job offer . Remember that you don’t want to regurgitate what you’ve put on your resume. Next, you will want to fit these skills and achievements into the context of your previous, relevant work experience . Don’t worry it’s pretty simple. The first line should explain the basic details of your previous job: Where + Title + How Long. For the past three years, I have been working as a Chief Animal Wrangler for Essay on Heredity, Perky Pets. The next few sentences go into the responsibilities, projects, or achievements you’d like to highlight as a part of your work. Here is iv graph for filament where you do the and Hormones tailoring. Choose a few responsibilities that fit with what you will be doing at your new job.

As Chief Animal Wrangler, I am responsible for training various types of animals for roles in blockbuster Hollywood films, as well as rehearsing with them and providing them with cues. Finally, add a few more lines explaining how everything you wrote will translate to success in book, your new role. I have a reputation in the industry for handling some of the calmest, most well-behaved animals. My inner sense of poise and self-confidence allows animals to develop a strong bond and sense of Essay on Heredity trust with the human actors that they work with on set. Always try to use facts and figures to draw attention to important information and to give the hiring manager a tangible sense of what you are capable of doing. Over the course of my employment with Perky Pets, there were zero incidents of the animals failing to meet the characters requirements of Essay on Heredity and Hormones their roles. All of the animals passed stress and health exams 100% of the time. The second and third paragraphs are also where you may want to explain why you have decided to make a career change or why there is attachment a gap in on Heredity and Hormones, your work history. A successful cover letter will tell the story that a resume can’t. Regardless, you will want to tailor the content to meet the needs of the recruiter. The last paragraph or conclusion of the best cover letters include a call to narnia, action:

Something like: “ Give me an and Hormones, interview! ” If you’ve done your job, this last bit doesn’t need to characters, be fancy. At the same time, it is the last impression you will make on Essay the hiring manager. So don’t leave a bad taste in their mouth. Essay? Be confident and enthusiastic. Just include the following information: Repeat why you will be a good fit for on Heredity and Hormones, the company and benefit them . Write that you will be looking forward to an interview and will follow up with them in a given amount of time. Rollo? Include your phone number once again and when you can be contacted. Thank them for their time and consideration. End your letter with “ Sincerely ” or “ Best ” and type your name.

I feel that my 10+ years in sales and customer service will allow me to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, help XYZ reach the ambitious sales targets set for the upcoming year. I look forward to discussing our opportunities at iv graph for filament lamp, an interview. Essay? I will follow up within a week from now, and I can be contacted any time during the week at should cyberbullying be a criminal offense, 419-564-6868. Essay? Thank you once again for your time and CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES, consideration. Best, Jane Smith. How to Write a Cover Letter When There's No Job Offer.

Let’s say you want to send your resume and covering letter to a hiring manager when there is no official opening. The benefits of sending a resume directly to a hiring manager, especially if someone has referred you, are numerous. While only 7% of the resumes hiring managers receive are thanks to a referral, 40% of hires are made that way. There are some small differences that you will need to keep in mind when considering how to write a cover letter for this particular situation. Personalization is even more important when you send a cover letter or resume directly to a hiring manager. You will want to make sure in Essay on Heredity, this case that you know the hiring manager’s name. Mention why you are so interested in working for them. You’ve just sent your documents to a company that does not have an open position. You must be enthusiastic about the company for some reason. For Filament Lamp? Tell the hiring manager why.

You should make it clear to the hiring manager that you know their organization like the on Heredity and Hormones inside of CASE STUDY: ON VARIOUS SAWDUST your pocket. Show that your skills and on Heredity and Hormones, experience will fit in with the attachment long-term goals of the Essay and Hormones business. End by for filament, explaining what you hope to get out of sending your resume to a hiring manager who doesn’t have a job to fill. Perhaps you just want to Essay and Hormones, know when the hiring manager will have a position available, and if they could keep your resume on file until then. Or maybe you’d like to speak to someone about what it would be like to work there. Just come up with an explanation for sending an unsolicited resume to a hiring manager’s personal email address. Finish by saying that you will contact that in adult attachment, a few weeks unless they contact you prior. Writing a good cover letter is still a necessary part of applying for Essay on Heredity and Hormones, a job. Some hiring managers may not take the time to book, read your cover letter.

Yet, a compelling, well-written cover letter can impress a hiring manager who does. tailor your cover letter to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, the job offer use your cover letter to tell a story that your resume can’t address your cover letter directly to the hiring manager. Taking the time to do these things could be the difference between getting called in for an interview or having your resume ignored. Do you have any questions about how to write a successful cover letter? If so, let me know in narnia, the comments and I’d be happy to reply.

Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about Essay on Heredity and Hormones resumes and iv graph, eating tacos more than life itself. And Hormones? She spends her free time reading complicated novels and ON VARIOUS WOOD, binge watching TV series.

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Transboundary Water Disputes in Central Asia: Using Indicators of Water Conflict in Identifying Water Conflict Potential. Valery Votrin , Master's thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. Master programme in Human Ecology. Academic year 2002-2003. While the Essay on Heredity, literature about the likelihood of an acute conflict over offense freshwater resources continues to grow, little work has been done to identify key drivers of such conflict and to Essay, establish indicators of Essay on Obama the Marxist, water conflict potential. Such indicators need to incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables to develop a comprehensive model covering basin specific situation. This method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable.

Considering all factors having influence on and Hormones, the river basin regime is rollo weeks becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, provide resolution to STUDY: INVERTASE ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, the growing water conflict. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya Basins in Central Asia have been long known as #147;hot spots#148; where the potential for escalating existing tensions over on Heredity and Hormones water into should offense, a violent conflict was high. This study contributes to the identification and development of potential indicators of water conflict in Central Asia, while analysing some of them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis focuses on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. Taking the Essay and Hormones, basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in the Amu Darya Basin. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables aims at finding combinations of indicators that provide an adult, indication of potential water conflict. 1.1 Geographical background. 1.2 Historical background. 1.3 Existing water infrastructure. 1.4 Water scarcity and access.

1.5 Water quality. 2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. 2.2 Post-independence water management. 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia. 2.4 International actors. 2.5 Recent water conflicts. 2.6 Current water disputes. 2.6.1 The Syr Darya Basin.

2.6.2 The Amu Darya Basin. 2.7 Potential water disputes. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. 3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. 3.2 Testing indicators of Essay, water conflict. 3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. 3.5 Water Event Intensity Scale. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. 3.6.4 Minority groups.

3.6.6 Overall relations. 3.6.7 Freshwater treaties. 4.1 Population density/runoff. 4.2 Planned water infrastructure. 4.2.1 The Rogun Dam. 4.2.2 Golden Century Lake.

4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. 4.3.2 Role of Afghanistan. 4.5 Overall relations/Water events. 4.6 Freshwater treaties.

5.1 River boundaries. 5.2 Trade complications. 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. 5.4 Impact of international law. 5.6 Summing up results. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. List of bones book, Figures. I am greatly indebted to Nguyen Hahn Quyen of Essay on Heredity, Institute of Geography, Vietnam National Centre for Natural Sciences and Technology, and to Aaron T. Wolf and Brian Blankespoor of Oregon State University, USA, for providing GIS-related advice and should cyberbullying be a criminal offense, data.

I am also deeply grateful to Gretta Goldenman of Milieu Ltd and my promoter Prof. Marc Pallemaerts for Essay on Heredity their guidance and comments. My thanks are also due to Alexey Tolmachov for technical support. Water. Everywhere you turn here, you're involved with the lack of water. Why is there so little of it. The water was there. It dries up. And never again is there water#133; Over the last decades, there has been a growing speculation about the characters, likelihood of an acute conflict or even war over freshwater resources. Scholars increasingly point out that the and Hormones, 21 st century might see the battles fought due to water scarcity.

Indeed, water is the only resource h. aving no substitute, and the demand for it is constant and burning. All forms of the Earth#146;s life, including humans, need water to survive. The fact that we inhabit the weeks narnia, #145;water planet#146; soothes little as only less than 3% of total water resources on the Earth are freshwater. Its distribution is obviously uneven, with some nations suffering severe droughts every year and the others blessed with water abundance. It is Essay on Heredity and Hormones no wonder then that through the whole history of human race, water allocation and quantity fuelled tensions between various states, with particular role played by narnia transboundary river resources. And although history shows that full-scale wars over water, proving to be neither strategically rational nor hydrographically effective, have never been fought (Wolf, 1998), water continues to be a source of intense disputes worldwide. The problem grows harder when it comes to the relationships between two or more countries over river water as a result of the #147;internationalisation#148; of a basin through political change. The number of international basins has grown from 214 in 1978 to 263 today. Essay. These international basins cover 45.3% of iv graph for filament lamp, total land surface, affect about 40% of the world#146;s population, and account for about 60% of global river flow.

Nineteen basins are shared by 5 or more riparian countries, with only the Danube being shared by 17 riparians, whereas five basins #150; the Congo, Niger, Nile, Rhine and Zambezi #150; are shared by between 9 and 11 countries (Wolf, 2001). In this situation, such long-negotiated instrument of on Heredity, international water law as the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, is of little help as it provides for equally contradictory #145;equitable use#146; and #145;no significant harm#146; principles: while the former is favoured by upstream countries, downstream riparians insist on emphasising the latter because it protects their own rights. It is weeks narnia also difficult to enforce the Convention in the absence of any international enforcing mechanisms. More importantly, the Convention hardly weighs out a variety of political, social, economic, demographic and environmental factors that encompass each shared river basin. Negotiators whose task is to provide timely diplomatic intervention, or apply means of the so-called #145;preventive diplomacy#146;, in order to Essay, avoid the escalation of characters, a dispute into open conflict need to be aware which basin is prone to water conflict well in on Heredity and Hormones, advance. To do that, they need to identify potential indicators of conflict that incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and cyberbullying offense, environmental variables, including those which can be analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and to develop a comprehensive model to explore specific linkages between them.

In particular, this method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable. Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has become a tangle of unresolved transboundary water disputes. Water is the most critical resource in Central Asia and it #147;has more often been the source of competition rather than the focus of conservation#148; (Hogan, 2000b). The absence of mechanisms to handle the water problems has already resulted in various accusations of improper water use. Consequently, the whole region becomes the site of potential conflict that requires a framework which should incorporate a great many variables to identify the proneness to water conflict and to allow for the possibility of preventive diplomacy. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. Such method which has never been used towards the INVERTASE ON VARIOUS SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, specific problem of Central Asian water disputes can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the on Heredity, region. This study seeks to identify potential indicators of water conflict and analyse some of rollo weeks, them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis will focus on Central Asia#146;s regional and and Hormones, basin specific information. An attempt to answer a question of what indicators better point to water conflict will be taken. Chapter 1 focuses on the background of water use in Central Asia.

Chapter 2 overviews main regional water conflict/co-operation trends and highlights major hot spots in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. Bones Book. Chapter 3 identifies the main groups of water conflict indicators and develops the Essay and Hormones, Amu Darya Basin GIS covering some water conflict indicators. Chapter 4 provides specific details of each indicator. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the main findings of the study. The study aims at testing the working hypothesis that proneness of for filament, a specific river basin to water conflict can be identified through a variety of indicators representing physical, political, environmental and socio-economic processes occurring in this specific region, thus providing better chance for using preventive diplomatic actions. The study#146;s methodology is Essay and Hormones based on the concept of international river basins offered by the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002).

The database contains a large collection of the Marxist, water treaties and Essay on Heredity, agreements and is a sound foundation for for filament lamp transboundary water conflict research. For the purposes of this study, the Amu Darya Basin is examined. On Heredity And Hormones. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in Central Asia. There is adult attachment also chance to explore the use of on Heredity, GIS such as ESRI Arc View for social research. A parallel analysis of for filament, water conflict related variables focuses on finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. Central Asia lies in the heart of the Eurasian continent and is comprised of the five former Soviet republics #150; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as well as of northern Afghanistan and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, China#146;s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. All these share basins of the two major rivers in the region: the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya which form the iv graph lamp, Aral Sea basin. The Amu Darya catchment basin constitutes 62% of the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, region#146;s surface water resources and the Syr Darya forms the remaining 30%.

The Basin#146;s population of over 35 million occupies about 1.5 million square kilometres and population density varies from about 10 persons per square kilometre in the desert plains to attachment, over 300 in the valleys and Essay on Heredity, foothills of the mountains (Smith, 1995). With domination of low-lying deserts, the adult attachment, climate in Central Asia is Essay on Heredity and Hormones hot and dry, with low and irregular precipitation. Sharp daily and book, seasonal differences in temperature are typical, with long hot summers and cool moist winters. Essay And Hormones. The annual precipitation in the lowland is adult only 80-200 mm, concentrated in the winter and spring, while in on Heredity, the mountains it ranges 600-800 mm. The region has very different climatic zones with distinct water demands for irrigation.

Agricultural, industrial and should cyberbullying criminal offense, personal needs can only be satisfied through diversion of Essay on Heredity, water from the Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers and their tributaries. The Amu Darya is Central Asia#146;s largest river and has the highest water bearing capacity of the region draining the rollo weeks, catchment of 692,300 km 2 . On Heredity And Hormones. It originates in should be a offense, the Pamir mountains and forms the Pyandj river at the Tajik-Afghan border. Near town of Termez in Uzbekistan the Pyandj is joined by Essay on Heredity and Hormones the Surkhandarya to form the Amu Darya. The Pyandj is augmented by a number of major tributaries including the adult, Vaksh and Kafirnigan. From its headwaters, the Essay on Heredity, Amu Darya flows 2540 km west across Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and finally crosses the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan to discharge into the Aral Sea. Discharge is closely related to the amount of snowfall and summer temperatures, with mean annual flow between 46.9 and 108.4 km 3 per should be a criminal offense, annum with an average of 78.5 km 3 (O#146;Hara, 2000). The Syr Darya is the Essay on Heredity, longest (2,212 km) river in Central Asia, having less catchment of 219,000 km 2 . It rises in the mountains in Kyrgyzstan and has two major tributaries: the Naryn fed by STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION over 700 glaciers in the Tien Shan, and the Kara Darya sourcing in the Ferghana and Alay mountains. After confluence in eastern Uzbekistan, these form the Syr Darya which crosses into Tajikistan and then re-enters Uzbekistan and finally flows into Kazakhstan where it discharges into the Aral Sea. Its discharge is smaller than the one of the Amu Darya, ranging from 21.4 to. 54.1 km 3 per annum, with the average of on Heredity, 37.2 km 3 (Vinogradov, 1996; O#146;Hara, 2000). The Zeravshan, the third largest river in Central Asia, begins in the Pamir mountains in Tajikistan and crosses high mountain valleys before entering the flat plains in Samarkand region of Uzbekistan.

As a result of should cyberbullying be a, intensive evaporation and consumption, the river gradually disappears in on Heredity and Hormones, Kyzylkum desert before reaching the Amu Darya. Mean annual flow of the Zeravshan river is criminal 5.2 km 3 (Smith, 1995). The major states of the 19 th century#146;s Central Asia, the Bukhara Emirate and the Khiva and and Hormones, the Kokand Khanates, were put under the control of the iv graph for filament, Russian Empire by the end of the century, when the Anglo-Russian Agreement curtailed further Russian expansion in the vicinity of the northern borders of British India. By 1895, the Aral Sea Basin was firmly under the control of Russia, either directly or as protectorates. Thus, the Essay and Hormones, scene for rollo weeks narnia the future colonial relationship was set that persisted under the Essay and Hormones, Soviets and indirectly led to the Aral Sea environmental catastrophe. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the Provisional Government (in power between March-November 1917) and lamp, proclaimed Russia the Essay on Heredity, Soviet Republic, eventually to be replaced by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The creation of on Obama the Marxist, Central Asian states, in their modern borders, was finished by 1924. In fact, the USSR established modern-day Central Asian states set to and Hormones, become independent nations in future (Bedford, 1998).

In 1991, after the Belovezh Agreement was signed by rollo weeks the leaders of the three most powerful Soviet republics #150; Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and the Soviet republics became independent. The independence appeared a somewhat of a shock for the five Central Asian states, as there was little domestic pressure for them to leave the Soviet Union and no real history as independent nations. Essay And Hormones. Closely woven together economically, they had no experience of IMMOBILIZATION WOOD, dealing with important economic decisions, which have always been taken in Moscow. Typically, former apparatchiks as presidents of now independent states were left in power. Nevertheless, necessary cosmetic changes were made such as banning their local Communist parties, reinventing themselves as people#146;s representatives, etc. Understandably, a new political structure called the Commonwealth of Independent States, appeared in December 1991 as a result of the Alma-Ata Declaration that brought the USSR to an end and legally established the post-communist states (Gleason, 2001; ICG, 2002b). In their description of Central Asian statehood, Menon and Spruyt (1999) give several important particularities of state formation after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia to Essay, keep in mind. The states were formed by Stalin#146;s administrative diktat that assigned largely arbitrary borders to the republics and allotted such territories to #147;titular#148; nationalities, which is why state boundaries and CASE INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD, ethnic composition in Central Asia lack correspondence; Central Asian states are late developers who have traditionally opted for interventionist economic policies and authoritarian government; clan, religious, ethnic and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, regional affinities here have not been displaced by centralising, high-capacity states; and, finally, these states lack any experience with democratic multi-party systems. With irrigation agriculture being the largest water consumer in for filament lamp, the region, all Central Asian rivers are utilised and heavily managed. Between 1960s and 1980s, an extended network of dams, reservoirs and canals has been built in the Aral Sea Basin. The largest water storage facilities are the Toktogul Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan controlling the flow of the Naryn river, and the Nurek Dam on the Vaksh river in Tajikistan, dubbed #147;the largest earth-fill dam in the world#148;.

Only the Syr Darya basin has 22 operating reservoirs (Toryanikova and Kenshimov, 1999), including the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams which consists of Essay, five reservoirs: three upper reservoirs with the Essay the Marxist, over-year regulation - the Toktogul (projected total volume is 19.5 km 3 ), the Charvak (2.0 km 3 ), the Andijan (1.9 km 3 ) - and also two channel reservoirs with the seasonal regulation - the Kairakkum (4.03 km 3 ) and the Chardara (5.7 km 3 ), with the on Heredity and Hormones, aggregate active storage capacity of 24.1 km 3 (Khamidov et al, 1999). Both rivers have a total of on Obama, 274 water diversion structures and Essay and Hormones, 612 km of bones book, main canals (Elhance, 1997). Figure 1.2: Layout of water infrastructure in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Tsusui and Hatcho, 1995. However, due to the lack of maintenance and high silt content in the Amu Darya water (up to 6 kg of silt and sand per 1 cubic metre), many important water facilities like, for on Heredity and Hormones example, Hauzkhan, Kurtli and Geok-Tepa reservoirs in Turkmenistan, are currently half silted up (Mouradov, 2002). In Soviet times, at least $60 per on Obama, acre was spent to maintain the water systems. Uzbekistan currently spends less than $25 per acre. Tajikistan, recovering after the Essay and Hormones, civil war, spends $4 (Wines, 2002).

As a consequence, of 55 m 3 of on Obama, water to be used for irrigation, only 38-44 m 3 of water reach the fields and plants actually receive 25-26 m 3 due to and Hormones, the outdated irrigation technology (Yegorov, 2001). Among the irrigation canals, the Karakum Canal, the world#146;s largest irrigation canal, is the most significant. Built between 1950 and 1987 and considered one of the great engineering feats of the Soviet era, it has taken water some 1,370 km across southern Turkmenistan from the Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea. Rollo Weeks Narnia. Though currently in crisis due to the very poor maintenance, the Karakum Canal still supports 3.5 million hectares of rangeland and about 1 million hectares of cropland, providing also power generation, water for industrial and domestic use and partly navigation (Hannan and O#146;Hara, 1998). Other canals include: the North and Grand Ferghana Canals transporting water from the Syr Darya to the Ferghana Valley; the Karshi Canal providing water to 1.2 million hectares in Uzbekistan#146;s Karshi Steppe; the Amu-Bukhara Canal irrigating land in the Bukhara Region in Uzbekistan from the Amu Darya; and the South Hungry Steppe and Kirov Canals irrigating the Golodnaya (Hungry) Steppe from the Syr Darya (Nanni, 1996). Soviet-built irrigation schemes brought about widespread and rapid land degradation which only in on Heredity, Turkmenistan resulted in land being abandoned at a rate of over 46,000 hectares per annum in the 1970s (O#146;Hara and Hannan, 1999). CASE STUDY: INVERTASE ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION. Nevertheless, some of the on Heredity, projects are still under construction, for characters example, the huge Rogun Dam upstream of the Nurek. Given the Essay, current location of reservoirs, about 60% of total storage capacity of the Amu Darya and 9% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya are controlled by Tajikistan, whereas Kyrgyzstan controls 58% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya largely because of the Toktogul.

Downstream Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have very few water storage facilities and are entirely dependent for water on the upstream countries. The distribution of water in Central Asia is Essay on Obama notably uneven. While upstream Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan enjoy water abundance, downstream nations of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partly Kazakhstan experience sharp water shortages. But the problem is predominantly consumption. At the heart of economic systems of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is cotton, which is the major hard currency earner for those countries. Cotton is a thirsty culture requiring intensive irrigation. With plans to triple cotton and rice production and almost complete dependence on upstream water resources, water overuse is common in downstream riparians and virtually no effort has been made to on Heredity, reduce water use. In addition, people in iv graph lamp, Central Asia consume 110 to and Hormones, 120 billion m 3 of water per annum for domestic needs, which is attachment several times higher than in on Heredity and Hormones, the Middle East. In Uzbekistan alone, more than two billion cubic metres of water are wasted every year (Iskakov and Tabyshalieva, 2002). Water is cheap; in characters, some regions its price is about 65 cents per Essay, #147;Olympic swimming pool#148; (Wines, 2002).

The consequence is some drought-prone areas grow rice and keep square miles of rollo narnia, nothing but flooded paddies. Central Asia has become notorious worldwide as a site of the most dramatic environmental disaster, the Aral Sea Crisis. Essay And Hormones. Once the fourth largest lake in the world, the Aral Sea has shrunk by more than half over the last forty years. The major reason for that was increased discharge of for filament, inflowing water for irrigation. Grand Soviet schemes for the production of cotton, rice and other irrigated cultures required huge amounts of water.

However, large irrigation canals designed to provide massive agricultural expansion were on arid lands badly suited to irrigation where the soil is often much permeable and seepage is great. Essay On Heredity. In addition, in these areas the rivers are raised, and once the water has been taken from the river channel it cannot return readily. The result of this overexploitation of water resources was that by 1995-1996 total annual inflow to the Aral Sea has dropped to should cyberbullying offense, 7 km 3 , the surface area of the sea was reduced to 33,000 km 3 , and the level had fallen by 37 m. The sea became saline and and Hormones, devoid of fish (Tanton and Heaven, 1999). Throughout the sea#146;s former basin, water has mobilised deep salt reserves, raised the water table and waterlogged the fields as a result of over-irrigation. In Turkmenistan, 95% of irrigated lands suffer from book characters, salinisation, 50% - in Uzbekistan, about 30% - in Kazakhstan, 15% - in Tajikistan. Essay. Due to the mismanagement, several new lakes have appeared in the last decades, like the bones book characters, Aidar-Arnasai lake located in the middle course of the Syr Darya and formed in 1969 as a result of the effluent drain from Toktogul and Chardara reservoirs (Sievers, 2002; CAREC, 2002). Intensive irrigation development in the deltaic areas was also accompanied by increased anthropogenic pressure in form of on Heredity and Hormones, shrub felling, technogenic erosion and deflation. The period between 1978 and 1982 was marked by intensified process of adult attachment, desertification, as a result of the combination of excessive water withdrawals with a series of dry years (1974-1977). When hydromorphic swamps dried out, reeds were replaced by associations of mixed grasses and saltwort. Between 1982 and 1996, there was a further dramatic reduction in river discharge, with a total stoppage of inflow in case of the Syr Darya. In the driest years, the Amu Darya flow was almost nil.

As a result, salt and and Hormones, dust storms became a major new environmental hazard for the area (Saiko and Zonn, 2000). Despite that, water consumption goes at the same pace as before. The most populated nation in the region (25 million in 2002), Uzbekistan alone uses three-fifths of regional water supplies. In fact, industrial consumption of water in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is twice than in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Smith, 1995). Wasteful use of water on Uzbekistan#146;s very large irrigated area has contributed to a dramatic decline of the book, combined flow of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya and acted as a major factor in the Aral Sea Crisis.

Uzbekistan showed itself to be a staunch proponent for and Hormones this wasteful use of water arguing that it is vital for increasing cotton harvests. But excessive water stimulates vegetative growth that does not necessarily increase crop yields and may actually reduce them (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and weeks, Wichelns, 1996). Consequently, agriculture has never been a component of on Heredity, a negotiating set for downstream countries as any sweeping agricultural reform would have resulted in foreign currency losses and Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan perpetuated the WOOD BY BIOSORPTION, cotton monoculture to ensure social, political, and Essay on Heredity, economic stability in the short term (Weinthal, 2001). At the same time, Kyrgyzstan started implementing rational water use measures by reducing areas of thirsty cultures. Adult Attachment. As a result, in 2000, out of Essay on Heredity, projected 7,641,600 m 3 of water to be diverted from rivers, 6,866,200 m 3 , or 89.8%, was actually diverted, and 4,88,660 m 3 , or 86.5%, of projected 5,648,800 m 3 was used for irrigation (Apasov, 2001). Consequently, water overexploitation is the Essay, major reason for downstream riparians#146; water scarcity. On Heredity And Hormones. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan use their water inefficiently and hence they experience water scarcity in a time of water abundance (Wegerich, 2001). The quality of water in the major Central Asian rivers has declined dramatically over the history of large-scale irrigation.

Huge amounts of salt, fertiliser, herbicides, and bones book characters, pesticides found their way to the rivers as the Essay and Hormones, return flow from the fields. Of 36-40 km 3 of total annual return flow, about 50%, or 18-20 km 3 , bring to rivers about 115 million tons of salt and other harmful components, dramatically deteriorating water quality. Bones Characters. In the Amu Darya Basin alone, a total of 84 million tons of salt is discharged into the river, transported with the water which is used to irrigate the on Heredity, fields (Kobori and CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, Glantz, 1998; Spoor, 1998; Dukhovny and Essay on Heredity, Stulina, 2001). The groundwater table has risen and became as well contaminated with high levels of Essay the Marxist, salts and other minerals. Groundwater quality ranges from on Heredity and Hormones, a maximum of 0.5 g/L of total dissolved salts to bones, 6 g/L, 20 times than in on Heredity and Hormones, North America (about 300 mg/L). Total dissolved salts in drinking water reach the level of bones characters, 3.5 g/L, with the salt limit set by the Uzbek government to on Heredity, be 1 g/L.

In terms of chemical contamination, about of 65% of drinking water samples taken in Karakalpakstan proved not to correspond to standards (Small, van der Meer and Upshur, 2001). In the adult attachment, Syr Darya basin, the chemical most commonly found both in Essay on Heredity, river water and in the fields is butifos which has been widely used in the 60s-80s as defoliant with intensity of book, 1-1.5 kg per hectare. This organo-phosphorous agent with an acute oral toxicity affects central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Even small dose of butifos would disturb the reproductiveness of women. Since 1986, the production and use of butifos has stopped; however, it is still found in the water and at the bottom of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, as organo-chlorine pesticides (BHC, DDT) are (Ishida et al, 1995). High levels of pesticides are found in the tissues of fish in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.

Samples of cane, rice, millet and wheat grown around the Syr Darya have been found to contain dangerous levels of on Heredity, benzopyrene, a carcinogen produced by car exhausts, oil and coal furnaces and manufacture of asphalt (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Chemical pollution of drinking water has caused high cancer incidence, and rollo weeks, substantial dioxin residues have been found in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, mothers#146; milk, particularly in Karakalpakstan. In the midstream and downstream areas of the weeks, Amu Darya and Essay, Syr Darya, the incidence of bones characters, waterborne diseases such as typhus, paratyphoid, cholera and viral hepatitis has increased enormously. According to Uzbekistan#146;s Academy of Sciences, only 8 percent of Uzbekistan#146;s rivers are #147;clean#148;, around 15 percent of river water is of #147;satisfactory#148; quality, and 41 percent is Essay and Hormones #147;bad#148;. In 1996, over 10 million people (50 percent of the population) resided in the river basins that fell into the latter category. Around 36 percent of river water is considered #147;dangerous#148; or #147;extremely dangerous#148;, particularly in Karakalpakstan and in the lower delta of the Zeravshan river, where 24 percent of the Uzbek population lives. In many cases, rural dwellers are forced to drink irrigation water, as the only water available, with all health risks involved (Spoor, 1998). The Aral Sea crisis #150; or #147;syndrome#148; as Klötzli (1997) put it #150; has severely affected the area#146;s human ecology where millions of people are dependent on water and adult, soil that appear to be highly contaminated. A new model of regional co-operation other than that used in on Heredity and Hormones, the Soviet times was needed to address specific environmental, socio-economic and political problems of the region. Chapter 2 discusses regional water co-operation patterns in Central Asia. 2 Regional Water Co-operation and Conflict in Central Asia.

2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. Within the adult attachment, Soviet Union, inter-republican water resources were managed on the basis of water use plans. These plans were developed by local Ministries of Land Reclamation and Water Management and Essay and Hormones, then sent to Moscow to lamp, the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Management of the Essay on Heredity, Soviet Union for approval. These plans and schemes provided for annual water withdrawal limits with respect to each tributary, reservoir or canal and the limits were calculated against annual crop requirements. A number of bilateral agreements was signed between the republics to correct water allocation, such as the an agreement between the Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR on water quotas from the Amu Darya, between the Kyrgyz SSR and the Uzbek SSR on should cyberbullying, the use of waters of the Sokh river, etc. Neither of these agreements contained any provisions with respect to Essay on Heredity, the quality of return flows, i.e. the attachment, drainage water disposed of into the rivers. However, these plans and agreements still constitute the basis of current water management in the region (Nanni, 1996). Under the Soviet system of water allocation, water quotas imposed by Moscow favoured downstream countries at the expense of the upstream riparians: water-abundant Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were supposed to supply irrigated agriculture economies of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan with water in on Heredity and Hormones, spring and summer when water should be available for cotton fields.

In autumn and winter, when Kyrgyzstan and attachment, Tajikistan experienced peaks in electricity demand, they were supplied with Turkmen and Uzbek gas and Kazakh coal to satisfy energy consumption. They also received electricity from downstream countries during winter to be compensated for and Hormones the hydropower produced in summer. Maintenance and operating costs of dams and reservoirs were covered by Moscow. 2.2 Post-independence water management. After independence, the need for all riparians to enter into an agreement regulating water allocation in the Basin has become apparent. Such agreement signed on 18 February 1992 in Almaty did not go far from STUDY: SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, water quotas set up under the Soviet Union. As under earlier water allocation schemes, downstream nations received the largest quotas and the upstream countries were given much smaller quotas, considering their smaller populations and low cotton production.

The Almaty Agreement established the Interstate Water Management Coordination Commission (IWMC) with a mandate to control rational utilisation of the transboundary water resources. IWMC#146;s decisions regarding intake limits and rational utilisation of water are obligatory for all users. Essay And Hormones. It is cyberbullying responsible for governing the two inter-republican Basin Water Management Bodies (Basseinoe vodnoe ob#146;edinenie #150; BVO): BVO Amu Darya and BVO Syr Darya. Hence, the five preferred to continue with the BVO management system put in place during the Soviets (IGC, 2002b). Initially, IWMC was responsible for great many issues including water development and Essay and Hormones, allocation planning, water quality control and conservation, environmental protection, preparing annual water allocation plans, defining limits of water use by each riparian, etc. With the establishment of bones characters, other intergovernmental institutions between 1993 and 1995 such as the Interstate Council on the Aral Sea Basin and the International Fund for the Aral Sea, functions of the IWMC became somewhat duplicated and on Heredity, its relationship with other intergovernmental bodies remain unclear (Vinogradov and should cyberbullying be a offense, Langford, 2001; ICG, 2002b). The Almaty Agreement attempted to secure the on Heredity and Hormones, existing situation where water was apportioned to allow maximum utilisation whereas the international concept of for filament lamp, equitable and optimum utilisation was kept aloof. The Agreement also lacked the provision about dispute settlement. According to it, water disputes are to be settled by Essay on Heredity the Ministers of Water Resources of the five states. However, it does not provide for the situations in which the Ministers are unable to resolve the disputes. In absence of any inter-republican dispute settlement body, this seems to should be a offense, be serious flaw (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Landgford, 2001).

Furthermore, the problem is also actual functioning of the water management bodies, BVOs, who lack funding and legal powers. On Heredity. According to the Almaty Agreement, they have to submit a budget to the ICWC for attachment approval. Once a budget has been approved, the five members states are supposed to contribute a proportion of their budget based on the percentage of river water allocated. In practice, member states are unwilling to and Hormones, contribute funds to an external agency and bones, the BVOs are chronically underfunded. They also lack legal standing as most water management seems to be handled by national water management bodies, not BVOs (Bedford, 1998).

Sur Darya allocation, % Amu Darya allocation, % Source: Bedford, 1998. Hence, upstream countries were further restricted in Essay and Hormones, their economic development and ability to satisfy heating needs during winter months as downstream countries introduced world prices for CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SPECIES gas and coal. Unable to afford them, Kyrgyzstan increased electricity production at Toktogul reservoir that caused sharp reduction in water to downstream Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan for irrigation during cotton season. After serious tensions in 1997, the countries have come to enter a framework barter agreement in 1998. Essay And Hormones. Under this, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan would provide Kyrgyzstan with gas and coal during winter in return for STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION irrigation water during spring and summer. However, barter agreements are in constant breach due to a number of reasons: they are ready usually in spring when Uzbek and Kazakh fields are in dire need of and Hormones, water; the parties lack trust and do not keep their commitments; and there is lack of control mechanisms. Also, several years of severe drought have affected the situation dramatically, causing Kyrgyzstan to attachment, reduce water for on Heredity and Hormones irrigation in summer and triggering floods in Uzbekistan during winter. Attempts to adjust quotas to weeks narnia, reflect this have so far failed. Downstream countries have shown little understanding of upstream riparians#146; demands to expand their water use (ICG, 2002b). 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia.

Apart from the main framework agreements over water resources such as the 1992 Almaty Agreement, a number of other water management/allocation agreements have been entered into since 1992. Below is the list of some of Essay on Heredity, them: Agreement between the governments of Russia and Kazakhstan on the joint use and protection of transboundary water resources, Orenburg, 1992 Agreement on the creation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea, 1993 Programme on the joint actions on the improvement of environmental situation in the Aral Sea Basin, 1994 Declaration on adult attachment, the problems of on Heredity and Hormones, sustainable development in adult attachment, the Aral Sea Basin, Nukus, 1995 Statement of leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan about the energy/water use, Bishkek, 1996 Declaration on the creation of the Interstate Commission on Essay, Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of a Convention on Sustainable Development, Almaty, 1997 Framework Agreement between the governments of book characters, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan on on Heredity and Hormones, joint use of the Syr Darya River Basin water/energy resources, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on co-operation in the field of environmental protection and iv graph for filament, Agreement on biodiversity conservation, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan on the interstate use of hydrological facilities at the Chu and Talas rivers, 2000 Annual intergovernmental water/energy agreements (CAREC, 2002). However, actual regional co-operation over water resources, other than entering into numerous agreements, is #147;glaringly absent#148; (Spechler, 2001). Neither economic co-operation, nor water regulation has been a success, despite all the Essay and Hormones, joint communiqués and speeches. For the states experiencing sharp water scarcity, developing a national water strategy would be quite logical. Yet none of Central Asian states has developed one, though Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have started working on it. Implementing existing agreements appears to be another problem.

Far more accords are signed than implemented and national interests always outweigh joint action. None of iv graph, water treaties specifies a goal of reducing water use or making agriculture less water-intensive. The sceptical attitude of downstream countries to multilateral co-operation deters them from any environmental and financial commitments (Klötzli, 1997). Modern transboundary watercourse law largely based on the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses urges riparians not only to create legal agreements to manage their shared resources, but also to on Heredity and Hormones, find #147;joint management mechanism#148; and to cede sufficient sovereignty to them to rollo, make them effective. The two BVOs mentioned above might be an example if both had sufficient power. And none of Central Asian states have become a party to the 1997 Convention, although Kazakhstan did accede to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. From the first days of independence, bilateral donors, international agencies and private foundations have funded dozens of and Hormones, projects in order to resolve difficult water situation in Central Asia. Bones Characters. In doing so, technical solutions were preferred to political and economic ones. Especially active were the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the EU Programme of Technical Assistance to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, the CIS (TACIS), and the United States Agency of International Development (USAID) who spent millions of dollars to Essay on Obama the Marxist, help resolve the Aral Sea crisis.

Given poor condition of water infrastructure, this approach has yielded some moderate results, especially with small projects. And Hormones. Effort to tackle water from political perspective, however, has resulted in problems. A lack of willingness of Central Asian states to co-operate has buried great many initiatives, like, for example, an attempt by the Organisation of Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to persuade the five to discuss the region#146;s water problems at a water conference to be held in London. Attachment. This effort came to nothing with Turkmenistan#146;s president#146;s response that international conference in and Hormones, London was not the right place to discuss Central Asia#146;s water. ON VARIOUS WOOD. In his turn, Uzbekistan#146;s president said that his country had a thousands years of experience in managing water problems and he preferred bilateral discussions to a multilateral conference (Eggleston, 2000; ICG, 2002b). In trying to Essay and Hormones, find a solution to the desiccation of the Aral Sea, AralGEF, a project funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and designed to create small but viable wetlands and fisheries on the place of the Aral Sea through restoration of narnia, a modest flow to the old seabed, and the UNDP Aral Seashore Rehabilitation and Capacity Development Project are so far most prominent. According to the World Bank, in order to Essay on Heredity, successfully restore #147;modest flow#148; to the Amu Darya, agricultural runoff should be entirely restored. Thus, huge lakes that developed over the decades of CASE INVERTASE WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, water negligence from the excess water of the Toktogul reservoir and that now support local agriculture, fisheries, recreation areas and biodiversity habitats would thus be bound to disappear. And the main success of UNDP#146;s project on rehabilitation of the Aral Seashore consisted in providing 16,000 residents of Karakalpakstan with safe drinking water and planting thousands of trees that withered immediately because they were unsuited for local climate. Part of the problem is the failure of Central Asian states to support the donor projects in on Heredity and Hormones, a meaningful way, either administratively or financially. Neither donors seem to need anything more than paper reports.

Even National Environmental Action Plans funded by the World Bank, UNDP and TACIS are based on the ineradicable idea, the only one familiar to the region#146;s old guard of water bureaucrats, that plan, not action, is needed to save the situation. This approach endorsed by donor staffs inherently contradicts the overarching goal to help Central Asian states to Essay, move away from a planned economy and to embrace the market economy and decentralisation (Sievers, 2002; ICG, 2002b). Not surprisingly, this situation has already led to numerous small-scale local conflicts, began in the late 1980s when the central authorities weakened their grip on Central Asia. In 1990, the Essay on Heredity, outbreak of conflict in the Kyrgyz town of Osh, on the border with Uzbekistan, claimed over 300 lives and was provoked by fierce competition for water together with high population density, limited arable land and ethnic dimension (large population of Uzbeks living in the area). Since summer 1993, there have been serious water tensions between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan was blamed by the Uzbek authorities for releasing too much water from the Toktogul reservoir. Extra water did not reach the Aral Sea but was dumped instead into the Aydarkul depression, the large #145;sinus#146; which has developed as a result of years of negligence (Klötzli, 1994). In 1997, Uzbekistan has deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz border to guard the reservoirs straddling the two countries (Hogan, 2000b; Grozin, 2001). In June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament adopted a law classifying water as a commodity, and the government followed up by announcing that the downstream countries would be charged for the water they use.

Uzbekistan#146;s response was to cut off all deliveries of gas to Kyrgyzstan and accuse Kyrgyzstan of failing to book characters, honour the barter agreement to provide Uzbekistan with water in return for oil and gas. Although weaker in political and military terms Kyrgyzstan acknowledged this failure, Uzbekistan would be emboldened to behave in a more aggressive manner towards its neighbours. The two were on the verge of violent conflict for several times (Khamidov, 2001). Central Asia#146;s two major rivers, as well as their tributaries, have become a focus for Essay growing competition among their riparians, with the Syr Darya being a particular point of tensions. The Amu Darya is rapidly becoming a locus of disputes as the governments of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan become more hostile towards each other competing also for water, and Afghanistan is about to demand its share. These tensions have so far been contained without conflict, but all parties have shown a willingness to put their interests first at any cost, including military intervention. Due to bones book, their reliance on agriculture, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan view irrigation as a key security issue (ICG, 2002b). The Syr Darya is shared by four states and, in case of Uzbekistan, is on Heredity and Hormones shared twice as after flowing from Kyrgyzstan and crossing the STUDY: WOOD SAWDUST, Uzbek part of the Ferghana valley the river flows into the Tajik territory in the western Ferghana Valley and then pours again into Uzbekistan. After crossing the Hunger Steppe, the and Hormones, Syr Darya runs into Kazakhstan. As indicated above, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have had particularly discordant history over the use of water from the Syr Darya. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan faces serious economic problems, mainly because of a shortage of energy supply from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

The primacy of energy production over the irrigation needs downstream has already created a major discord between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (Klötzli, 1994). The 1998 Syr-Darya Framework Agreement between the two has been broken by both sides. The implementation of such barter agreement runs across one major problem #150; all barter agreements are delayed until the late spring when the downstream countries urgently need water for irrigation. Should Cyberbullying Be A. As this might be the case, Kyrgyzstan would have had an on Heredity and Hormones, incentive to produce less electricity. Rollo. However, due to Kyrgyzstan#146;s uncertainty whether enough gas would be provided, it produces electricity to protect itself giving rise to a vicious circle (IGC, 2002).

Uzbekistan intensified the tension more than once by acting in a unilateral manner. In July 1997, it cut off 70 percent of downstream flow, which caused a riot among the Kazakh farmers whose 100,000 hectares were threatened (O#146;Hara, 1998; Hogan, 2000b). History of altering water flow by upstream riparians is no more soothing. In summer 1999, Tajikistan released 700 million cubic meters of water from on Heredity and Hormones, its Kairakum reservoir without warning its downstream neighbours. As a result, cotton crops in southern Kazakhstan which has received less water than was agreed, were devastated. Essay On Obama The Marxist. The situation was seriously aggravated by Kyrgyzstan#146;s concurrent move to reduce the Essay and Hormones, flow to southern Kazakhstan in retaliation for bones characters Kazakhstan#146;s failure to supply coal under the barter agreements. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. After months of talks, the incident was finally settled (Hogan, 2000a).

At issue is also the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams in Kyrgyzstan. Every year Uzbekistan insists on rollo, releasing water from it to improve downstream agriculture. And Hormones. Several times, the rollo narnia, conflict was on the verge of war. In 1997, Uzbekistan deployed 130,000 troops on Essay on Heredity, the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, near the Toktogul reservoir, to conduct military exercises aimed at seizure of a #145;well guarded object#146;, using the armour and helicopters. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan, through media leak, hinted that in case the reservoir would be blown up, the resulting flood would sweep away Uzbekistan#146;s Ferghana and Zeravshan Valleys (Grozin, 2001). Kyrgyzstan has tried to persuade Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to share the maintenance and operating costs of the Toktogul reservoir but these attempts were turned down by the downstream countries.

Kazakhstan claimed that it would not be able to IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS, pay the costs #150; between US$ 15 and 27 million per annum. Thus, the opportunity for the downstream riparians to settle the dispute was missed. However, by adopting Law on the Interstate Use of Water Objects, Water Resources and Water Management Installations on 29 June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament left the door open to push the downstream countries into and Hormones, negotiations regarding the narnia, maintenance costs of the Toktogul reservoir as later Kyrgyzstan stated that in fact it demanded to pay only for Essay on Heredity the water passing through Kyrgyz reservoirs, i.e. share maintenance costs. Be A Criminal. This was welcomed by on Heredity Kazakhstan who agreed to pay for CASE INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES the maintenance of the Kyrgyz water installations, but initially opposed by on Heredity Uzbeks. However, in March 2002 Uzbekistan reached the agreement with Kyrgyzstan that it would share some costs in return for the guarantee that it would receive water for irrigation. Had more attention have been paid to adult, the barter agreements working properly, the main step to resolving the Syr Darya dispute between Kyrgyzstan and Essay on Heredity, Uzbekistan would be taken (ICG, 2002b). Shared water storage facilities, like the Andijan reservoir located in the Uzbek part of the Ferghana Valley but supposed to CASE STUDY: SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, re-channel some water back to Kyrgyzstan, also represent an Essay on Heredity and Hormones, inter-state problem (Chait, 1998). The Amu Darya is shared by four countries #150; Tajikistan as the upstream riparian, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan #150; and forms the border in some stretches between Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, and between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya is bones book much less regulated and has fewer dams and reservoirs to cause potential problems. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. However, there are serious tensions along the flow of the river not only between the upstream and downstream riparians, as, for example, between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, but also between the middle and lower riparians, for example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. According to the 1992 water quota agreement, Tajikistan is entitled to 9 m 3 of about 75 m 3 of annual flow of the Amu Darya, or 12 percent.

This is considered low by Tajikistan who needs to expand its agricultural output to supply the growing population with food. Tajikistan#146;s agriculture is underdeveloped since the Soviet times, and the irrigation system is derelict and in need of urgent repairs. Tajikistan sees the only way out as using more water either by increasing its water quota from the Amu Darya or by diverting the Zeravhsan river. As 95 percent of the latter are used by Uzbekistan, this would cause serious tensions with Tajikistan#146;s much powerful neighbour. In contrast, increasing the lamp, Amu Darya quota seems to be quite easy, since Tajikistan has an upper hand in distributing water resources of the Amu Darya. In principle, nobody could prevent Tajikistan from taking more water than was allocated by the water quota agreement. It is very hard to monitor Tajikistan#146;s performance, as most equipment needed has been destroyed during the civil war in 1992-1997.

But even Tajikistan were to Essay on Heredity, increase its water quota moderately, this would have an immediate impact downstream. The same water/energy complex as with Kyrgyzstan has developed between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan#146;s central and southern parts are well provided by electricity from the bones book characters, Nurek hydro plant, and northern Tajikistan having no grid lines with the rest of the on Heredity, country relies on Uzbekistan#146;s intermittent supplies of electricity and gas in Essay, winter. In return, Tajikistan provides power to southern Uzbek provinces and often requests that Uzbekistan switched off electricity to northern Tajikistan to keep imports within the agreed limit not to pay higher price. This causes serious discontent as Tajikistan is forced to have electricity rationed in many provinces due to on Heredity, poor state of Tajikistan#146;s grid lines.

The country desires to develop its hydropower resources to weeks narnia, break dependence on Uzbekistan. On Heredity And Hormones. But increasing hydro consumption would seriously affect the downstream access to seasonal water supplies and to create further discord along the Amu Darya course. The most dramatic conflict over the Amu Darya water resources is between downstream nations of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both equally depend on their cotton production and irrigation agriculture and both claim that each of them exceed their water quotas. Due to the very poor state of Turkmenistan#146;s water infrastructure, most water received by Turkmenistan is iv graph wasted.

The country does not want to spend huge funds for the expensive rehabilitation of crippling Turkmen canals and draws off more water from the Amu Darya instead. The relations between two countries dramatically worsened in Essay and Hormones, the late 2002 when the Uzbek ambassador has been declared persona non grata in adult, Turkmenistan on accusation of participating in and Hormones, the conspiracy to cyberbullying offense, oust and kill President Niyazov. Uzbek-Turkmen relations over water can grow even worse, given Turkmenistan#146;s ambitious plan to complete a huge reservoir in the Karakum desert, called the Golden Century Lake. Essay On Heredity. Another point of adult, contention is the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in the delta of the on Heredity, Amu Darya divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both sides feel displeased with the wasteful use of water, and should cyberbullying be a, this led to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, an outbreak of Essay the Marxist, violence in 1992 over the re-direction of and Hormones, drainage waters and raids by adult attachment both sides to cut off pipes and irrigation canals (Smith, 1995). Today, the Tyuyamuyun remains one of the Essay, several disputed areas in continuing water dispute with Uzbekistan. Throughout the independence period, rumours have circulated of a small-scale secret war between the two states over the river resources, Uzbekistan troops taking control of water installations on the Turkmen bank of the Amu Darya, and even of a massacre of attachment, a large number of Uzbekistan troops in Turkmenistan in 2001. While these reports seem to be unsubstantiated, they are very indicative of simmering tensions between the two (Sievers, 2002).

The complicated water situation in Central Asia forced the governments of the five states to Essay and Hormones, consider alternative plans for developing water infrastructure to gain better control over water resources. Book. Several giant projects are being considered now in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, an attempt to find the STUDY: INVERTASE WOOD SAWDUST, way out. With little exception, all of them date back to the Soviet planning system, and and Hormones, several projects have been frozen in CASE STUDY: INVERTASE WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, the 1970s-1980s due to the lack of funds. Having been revived, they immediately raised considerable anxieties among neighbouring countries. Among those projects are: the Rogun reservoir able to give Tajikistan full control over the Amu Darya, Golden Century Lake in the middle of Turkmenistan#146;s Karakum desert, the Essay and Hormones, project of diverting Siberian rivers of Ob and Essay on Obama, Irtysh to help replenish the Aral Sea, etc. On Heredity And Hormones. The former two are discussed in Chapter 4. The idea to divert Siberian water to Central Asia was abandoned in the late 1980s when it has become clear that the project would cause irretrievable damage to the environment. In recent years, however, the project has been revived by Uzbekistan. The main argument of the project#146;s proponents, among whom is the mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov, is that the Siberian rivers frequently flood and hence have excess of water to for filament, share with water-deficient Central Asian countries. Yet in reality floods are the integral part of a river system and there is and Hormones no any #147;excess#148; water. In projecting a huge canal 2,500 kilometres long, 200 metres wide and 15 metres deep from Western Siberia to Central Asia, it was estimated that 23 cubic kilometres of water would be diverted, of which 2 cubic kilometres would be lost due to the filtration.

Independent experts estimated that the filtration losses would be 12 cubic kilometres, i.e. half of the water to be diverted, which is normal, given that such a cyclopean structure would reach enormous levels of filtration, water-logging and salinisation. Book Characters. One expert put the idea of a miscalculating the project like this, #147;In the Soviet times, we would have been given the task of calculating a project cost of a bridge to and Hormones, the Moon, and narnia, we would have calculated that. But nobody would care about the consequences#148; (Radio Liberty, 2002). Huge, economically not viable and environmentally dubious Siberian water diversion project has already contributed to the difficult water situation in Central Asia. It is doubtful, however, that member countries of the Arctic Council, which Russia is a member of, would consent to threatening common water resources in the Arctic. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. Water disputes contribute to the broader complex of Essay and Hormones, problems across the region, including border disputes, Islamic extremism, high population growth, ethnic tensions, clan competition, human rights and political instability. The desiccation of the Aral Sea has been the important factor to cyberbullying be a criminal, the worsening socio-economic conditions in the area, fuelling nationalist ideas among the population of Karakalpakstan, the Uzbek autonomous republic adjacent to the disaster zone, and aggravating water situation in the region. Lack of public participation, particularly in authoritarian Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and attempts of those governments to find military decisions in already difficult relationships between those countries and upstream states makes the whole situation white-hot.

Ethnic dimension is extremely important for on Heredity and Hormones ethnically diverse Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. As it happens, local conflicts here have been more serious than wider ones. Disputes over land and water resources provoking wider ethnic conflict have led to hundreds of iv graph for filament lamp, victims in Kyrgyzstan in 1990. Poverty, rising costs and crumbling water infrastructure are adding to Essay on Heredity, strains in CASE INVERTASE SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, local water system. Water affects the poor who end up paying the large proportion of their income for the resource. Especially vulnerable to Essay on Heredity, violent eruptions over water and ethnicity is the should cyberbullying be a criminal offense, Ferghana Valley shared by Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan which has already seen the outbreaks of violence, like it was in 1990, when bloody clashes between inhabitants of the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Kyrgyz town of iv graph lamp, Osh claimed over 300 lives, or earlier, in 1989, when hundreds of the Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported to Central Asia by Stalin in the 1940s, were killed in on Heredity and Hormones, the Uzbek town of Ferghana in what was called one of the most dramatic episodes of inter-ethnic relations in the Soviet Union. The roots of any future ethnic strife in Central Asia lie in the unresolved social and weeks, economic problems, competition for Essay and Hormones scarce water and grazing resources and contentions over discriminatory land allocations (Elhance, 1997). Adult. Potentially explosive ethnic cleavages tear apart many countries in the region. Kyrgyzstan is divided between northern and southern part, with the Essay and Hormones, latter gravitating towards Uzbekistan and inhabited by large proportion of ethnic Uzbeks who have repeatedly demanded to give the area more autonomy. Uzbekistan#146;s headache is the large Tajik population living in Samarkand and book, Bukhara.

Over the on Heredity, last years, Uzbekistan#146;s policy was to suppress Tajik ethnic identity by not allowing schools to learn in Tajik language and forcing many Tajiks to call themselves ethnic Uzbeks in their Uzbek passports. The same situation is in Tajikistan where a lot of ethnic Uzbeks live. In the late 1990s, after the relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have worsened, the Tajik government expelled many Uzbeks to neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan in an attempt to iv graph for filament, get rid of #147;extremist elements#148;. Ethnic minorities have often been viewed by authoritarian governments as potential provocateurs, separatists and extremists (ICG, 2002a). Historic competition between peoples of Central Asia is fuelled by the fact that their leaders do not seem to like one another. There is a great personal competition between the three former Communist leaders, Uzbekistan#146;s Islam Karimov, Kazakhstan#146;s Nursultan Nazarbaev and Turkmenistan#146;s Saparmurad Niyazov.

Each wants to Essay on Heredity, show that his country is the region#146;s most powerful and for filament, he therefore should be viewed as the most prominent political figure in Central Asia. As a consequence, the leaders of the Essay, region does not see their countries to be the part of a functioning regional subsystem and are rather isolationist in their policies. Cyberbullying. For all this, they regularly meet to discuss their common problems (Olcott, 2001). Territorial claims and border disputes complicate the situation even further. Given complex ethnic mosaic in Central Asia, Soviet planners did not build administrative units along ethnic lines and took great care not to construct republics with strong ethnic identity which would allow them to eventually secede from the Soviet Union. As a result, thorny disputes as to whose territory was initially whose have occurred, burdened by the territorial exchanges. For example, Karakalpakstan began life in 1924 as part of Kazakhstan but in 1938 had been given away to Uzbekistan. Moreover, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan all have small enclaves on each other#146;s territory which are nominally a part of on Heredity, their country but are geographically isolated. Only Kyrgyzstan has two Tajik enclaves, with population of some 30,000 people, and five Uzbek ones, with population of bones book characters, about 50,000 people. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. Issues related to them are highly divisive, and solving this problem appeared to be very difficult (ICG, 2002a).

However, the process of delimitation of the borders has already begun. In 2000-2003, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a number of border delimitation agreements and started works on delimiting the borders. Adult Attachment. By 2001, Kazakhstan and on Heredity, Uzbekistan have finally settled the border problems and exchanged disputed territories. Yet many issues, like the problem of the Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan, still remain unresolved. In this context, the Essay the Marxist, growing need to take into and Hormones, account all factors surrounding water disputes is apparent. Bones Book Characters. Chapter 3 will try to analyse variables that may serve as indicators of water conflict potential in Central Asia.

3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. Water is the most politicised of on Heredity, all natural resources and it is more likely to adult, become a source of armed conflict. It is Essay on Heredity no wonder therefore that such possibility has been widely discussed (see, for on Obama the Marxist example, Gleick, 1993; Gleditsch, 1997; Just and Netanyahu, 1998; Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Despite the growing literature on water and conflict, little work has been done to provide arguments for the common thesis that #147;growing conflict over water looms ahead#148; (Samson and Charrier, 1997). Generally, the Jordan and Nile basins are cited to give an example of Essay on Heredity, international conflict prone basins. On the other hand, Wolf (1998) gave a historic evidence of should be a criminal offense, co-operation between riparians and stated that the only recorded war over water was fought 4500 years ago between two Mesopotamian states, Lagash and Essay, Umma, in what is now southern Iraq. STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION. The same author pointed out at Essay on Heredity the #147;loose definitions#148; in the terminology of the literature about water and conflict where #147;terms such as conflict, dispute, tensions, and war are regularly used interchangeably#148; (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Nevertheless, in order to provide indication of potential water conflict, combinations of variables, or indicators, have to be developed.

Undoubtedly, the practice of establishing various sets of indicators, including those for sustainable development, over the past decade has greatly influenced this idea. However, unlike indicators of sustainable development designed to STUDY: ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, communicate with the Essay and Hormones, public at large to provide clear picture of a country#146;s progress towards sustainable development, indicators of water conflict proneness are meant to serve as a #145;yardstick#146; for CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION decision makers who are involved in negotiations regarding specific river basin management. Yet such #145;limited#146; value does not impede the and Hormones, indicators of being used by international scientific and political community able to translate them into a pressure on the governments of the riparians involved in a dispute well before this would turn into attachment, a violent conflict. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) makes such analysis even more effective by Essay on Heredity bringing together spatial and non-spatial variables, thus facilitating identification and interpretation of potential indicators. One of the frequently cited instruments which could serve as a model for developing a set of water conflict indicators is the Index of Human Insecurity (IHI) developed to facilitate identification of vulnerable or insecure regions. It is considered an attachment, #147;aggregate measure of human welfare that integrates social, economic, and political exposures to and capacity to cope with a range of potentially harmful perturbations#148; (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). The IHI identifies four #147;key system components#148; #150; the environment, the Essay and Hormones, economy, society, and weeks, institutions. Within each of on Heredity and Hormones, these four indicator categories are four variables, each of which measure either a key structural relationship (e.g., linkages, defining characteristics) or a key functional relationship (e.g., processes, flows) of the bones book characters, system.

Where data in a time series are missing, IHI developers utilize statistical techniques to establish a complete time series for Essay on Heredity all indicators and all countries, where there is sufficient initial data. However, the index for each year is specific to that year, making it difficult to CASE INVERTASE WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, compare changes in a country#146;s IHI from across years (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Another water-specific indicator is water stress measured by Falkenmark#146;s (1992) Water Stress Index (WSI) which divides the on Heredity, volume of a country#146;s available water resources by its population. This measure, however, does not account for a country#146;s ability to adapt to water stress, such as with more efficient irrigation technology. Ohlsson (1999) has developed a Social Water Stress Index (SWSI) to incorporate a measure of adult attachment, a country#146;s adaptability. The SWSI is a water stress index (freshwater availability per capita) divided by UNDP's Human Development Index and on Heredity, then divided by 2 (rounded to lamp, nearest wholes). Both these global level indices are usually derived and applied at the country level. Several other potential indicators were also mentioned in the literature, including overall population growth rates within a country, population density within and outside a basin, relative power and riparian position of countries within a basin (Wolf, 1999), the degree of democratisation of and Hormones, countries sharing a river basin and so on. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. The methodology for rollo weeks establishing indicators of international freshwater conflict and co-operation was developed under Basins At Risk (BAR) project at Oregon State University, USA (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). BAR which has spanned for 4 years effectively developed and created legal and spatial framework to further evaluate international river basins at potential risk for future water conflict.

All 263 international river basins were delineated and a database documenting historical incidents of on Heredity, international water conflict and co-operation between 1948 and lamp, 1999 was set up. Finally, indicator variables were created and the river basins in need of more detailed investigation with regard to water conflict were identified. Indicators have been selected in accordance with the following criteria: relevance to the selected framework; general availability of the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, data; existence of a theoretical or empirical link with security issue; and an adequacy of spatial and temporal coverage allowing for effective representation and modelling (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). Emphasis was made on the regional and basin scale indicators rather than on indicators of potential water conflict at global scale. Internationalisation of a basin was at special focus. Assuming that there is a causal link between the internationalisation of a basin and incidents of conflict among the states that now share that basin, the presence of ethnic minorities with nationalistic aspirations becomes a potential indicator (Wolf, 1999).

A key question regarding the above variables is whether they are relevant to indicating water conflict. Yoffe (2001) provides a good account of statistically testing indicators previously cited in the literature. Essay The Marxist. As main statistical tool, linear regression was used to on Heredity and Hormones, assess the relative strength of various independent variables in explaining the variability of the event data. Also, other statistical methods such as two-sample t-test were employed. Linear regression has been chosen because #147;it offered a concise summary of the mean of the response variable as a function of an explanatory variable#148; (Yoffe, 2001). Sixteen indicators, including GDP per capita, population density, number of dams, water stress, HDI, hydropower have been tested using linear regression, three indicators such as freshwater treaties, adjacency and riverine contiguity have been analysed using two-sample t-test, and four indicators such as dam density, freshwater treaties, climate and narnia, precipitation had no statistical tests conducted on them due to structure of data. Yoffe#146;s most important finding was that most of the commonly cited water conflict indicators proved to be unsupported by the data. Neither government type, climate, IHI, water stress or number of dams, nor agricultural dependence on water resources and energy needs showed a significant relevance with water conflict. Based on the assessment, river basins are at potential risk of freshwater conflict if: population density exceeds 100 people per 1 km 2 per capita GDP is less than $765 overall unfriendly relations (-1 at water event intensity scale) there are politically active minority groups that may lead to the internationalisation of a basin large dams or other water development projects are planned no or limited number of water treaties is on Heredity and Hormones available (Yoffe, 2001). This study will employ these indicator variables as the characters, research framework.

A number of the attribute data mentioned above can be effectively represented within a Geographic Information System (GIS), such as ESRI ArcView, designed to and Hormones, capture, store, manipulate, analyse and visualize disparate sets of geographically referenced data. Book. Moreover, some spatial information such as runoff and slope would be extremely difficult to analyse without the use of a GIS. However, GIS has its limitations inherent to the technology, including problems of multiple scales and data interpretation. The examination of indicators at an international, national and sub-national level introduces questions of Essay and Hormones, scale that will need to be further addressed. There is also a lack of distinct frameworks to analyse the interaction of human and rollo, environmental systems (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Linked to the problem of frameworks is the on Heredity, problem with interpreting non-spatial matters using spatial analysis. For instance, the degree of democratisation of a country might be difficult to represent if one assumes that different areas have different levels of democratisation. Special problem regarding Central Asia#146;s GIS is the lack of data; several important databases located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, contain a lot of vital information but this information is virtually closed for external use.

3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. Previous attempt to should be a criminal, apply potential indicators of water conflict to Central Asia#146;s water disputes has been made by Myers (1993) who created a water scarcity index using population and per capita water availability data. Essay And Hormones. Assuming that water stress is to occur when more than 2,000 people share every unit of one million cubic meters of available water, the author calculated water indices for each of Central Asia#146;s countries by comparing 1991 population data with all available water and the amount of water available solely from indigenous sources (i.e. Bones Book. that available from precipitation within the borders of a country). In 1993, all the countries appeared to have sufficient water resources per capita. Both downstream countries of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan relied on water flowing in from outside and indigenous water resources stress was high (2,180 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in Uzbekistan and 3,287 people per one million m 3 of and Hormones, indigenous water in Turkmenistan). Klötzli (1994) used a number of indicators for vulnerability to should be a, water scarcity developed by Essay on Heredity Gleick (1993), including the ratio of water demand to supply, the per capita availability of adult attachment, water, the on Heredity, dependence on imported surface water and the importance of hydroelectric production.

Having calculated these, the author came to a somewhat obvious conclusion that #147;these indicators#133; show a distinct difference between the water-rich republics of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and the republics not controlling the sources of water courses like Uzbekistan and#133; Turkmenistan#133; The vulnerability indices not only express different access and weeks narnia, pollution control opportunities, but also different, often contradictory modes of water utilisation (hydropower vs. Essay On Heredity. agriculture)#148; (Klötzli, 1994). Similar method based on Gleick#146;s findings was used by be a offense Smith (1995) to determine the relative degree of on Heredity, dependence of particular regions on water resources and to attachment, identify those regions that may become potential focal points for future intra- and interstate conflicts. It is argued that high population growth can be more damaging to Essay and Hormones, the environment than high population density and southern Uzbekistani provinces as Surkhandarya and Kashakdarya and several regions in adult, the Ferghana Valley that experienced some of the highest population growth rates in the region between 1981 and 1991 are most likely to become a scene of a resource-related conflict. The author points out that the on Heredity and Hormones, areas combining high population growth and no indigenous water supplies (Andijan and Ferghana in eastern Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan in bones, the west) are of prime concern. As Turkmenistan#146;s Dashhovuz region and Uzbekistan#146;s Karakalpakstan share the water of the on Heredity, lower Amu Darya, future water-induced conflicts may occur in this region. Each region was ranked according to the basic characteristics believed to affect the water conflict potential (population growth rate/density, per capita water availability from total and indigenous sources, share of water derived from external sources, minority population share of total population). Eight of ten regions having the highest rankings for water-resource vulnerability are located in Uzbekistan, with top of the top four located in the Ferghana Valley. Be A Offense. Thus, the regions constituting the Ferghana Valley and those occupying the lower Amu Darya appear to Essay and Hormones, be the attachment, most sensitive to potential water-induced conflicts. Carney and Moran (2000) examined the interstate affect in Central Asia toward Russia, i.e. #147;the current discernable feeling of Essay and Hormones, a government toward another government#148; which is adult expressed #147;#133;in all behaviour whether it takes the form of word or deeds#148;, and developed #147;scale of affectivity#148; ranging arbitrarily from -2 to +2. Although different in on Heredity and Hormones, goals, this study employed the similar technique in scoring and coding news reports from Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) as discussed below. Also mentioning the Aral Sea Basin#146;s famous conflict potential, Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) argue that the on Obama, basin countries tend to negotiate current conflicts.

However, none of the treaties signed recently include all the basin riparians, and therefore potential for continued disputes, at on Heredity and Hormones least in iv graph for filament, the nearest future, is likely. Given global scale of BAR project, considering and spatially interpreting all physical, social, economic and political variables for Essay on Heredity and Hormones Central Asia becomes even more vital and can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) recount of compiling a systematic database for water conflict/co-operation worldwide, in an attempt to for filament, gather every reported interaction between two or more nations, where water was the driver of the event. Essay. Using various international news databases, like FBIS and its online version, World News Connection (WNC), the authors developed #145;a friendship-hostility scale#146; #150; a ratio of all co-operative to conflictive events between nations over water, having modified a scale created by Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAB) project directed by Professor Edward E. Azar. COPDAB#146;s scale ranges from level 1, representing the most co-operative events, to level 15, representing the iv graph for filament lamp, most conflictive events, with level 8 representing neutral events. To make it water-specific, the authors inverted it so that neutral events were centred on zero, to on Heredity and Hormones, make it ranging from -7 to +7, with -7 denoting the most conflictive events, 0 denoting neutral events, and +7 denoting the lamp, most cooperative events. The new scale also included the addition of water terms (italicised in Table 3.1), and a new category, formal declaration of war. To accommodate this category, which is not part of the original COPDAB Scale, category 13 (Small scale military acts) and on Heredity and Hormones, 14 (Limited war acts) were merged into one category, number 13.

Category 14 was given the heading and description of category 15 (Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic costs), and Category 15 was changed to indicate a formal declaration of war (Yoffe, 2001). RE-CENTERED BAR SCALE. Formal declaration of war. Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost: Use of nuclear weapons; full scale air, naval, or land battles; invasion of territory; occupation of territory; massive bombing of civilian areas; capturing of soldiers in battle; large scale bombing of military installations; chemical or biological warfare. Small scale military acts: Limited air, sea, or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of target country; material support of subversive activities against target country. Political-military hostile actions: Inciting riots or rebellions (training or financial aid for rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisors; executing alleged spies; nationalizing companies without compensation.

Diplomatic-economic hostile actions: Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on land, waterways, or in attachment, the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and blocking free communication; manipulating trade or currency to cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in country; expelling or arresting nationals or press; spying on foreign government officials; terminating major agreements. Unilateral construction of water projects against another country#146;s protests; reducing flow of on Heredity, water to another country, abrogation of a water agreement. Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction: Warning retaliation for rollo acts; making threatening demands and accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system, or ideology; postponing heads of state visits; refusing participation in Essay, meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; blocking or vetoing policy or proposals in the UN or other international bodies. Weeks. Official interactions only. Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction: Low key objection to policies or behaviour; communicating dissatisfaction through third party; failing to on Heredity and Hormones, reach an agreement; refusing protest note; denying accusations; objecting to explanation of goals, position, etc.; requesting change in policy. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest. Neutral or non-significant acts for rollo weeks the inter-nation situation: Rhetorical policy statements; non-consequential news items; non-governmental visitors; indifference statements; compensating for nationalized enterprises or private property; no comment statements. Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions - mild verbal support: Meeting of high officials; conferring on problems of mutual interest; visit by lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiqués; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; non-governmental exchanges; proposing talks; public non-governmental support of regime; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for policy; stating or explaining policy. Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime: Official support of policy; raising legation to embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for Essay on Heredity and Hormones help against third party; apologizing for unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; thanking or asking for aid; resuming broken diplomatic or other relations. Cultural or scientific agreement or support (non-strategic): Starting diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communication; proposing or. offering economic or military aid; recognizing government; visit by rollo weeks narnia head of Essay, state; opening borders; conducting or enacting friendship agreements; conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.

Agreements to set up cooperative working groups. Non-military economic, technological, or industrial agreement: Making economic loans, grants; agreeing to economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural, or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most favoured nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling industrial-technological surplus supplies; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling non-military goods; giving disaster relief. Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation. Military economic or strategic support: Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval, or land facilities for bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; joint programs and plans to initiate and pursue disarmament. International Freshwater Treaty; Major strategic alliance (regional or international): Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military manoeuvres; establishing economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; establishing joint program to raise the global quality of life.

Voluntary unification into one nation: Merging voluntarily into on Obama the Marxist, one nation (state); forming one nation with one legally binding government. Source: Yoffe (2001) For the purposes of this study, BAR global Water Event Intensity Scale is adapted to the Amu Darya basin countries in Central Asia to determine overall relations and identify focal points for the future conflicts while concurrently applying GIS-based variables of Essay and Hormones, water conflict. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. In creating ArcView data coverages for the Amu Darya Basin, data for international river basins kindly provided by Dr Aaron T. Wolf was used which was then matched to the US Geological Service Hydro1k (USGS, 2000) dataset, a global coverage of streams and CASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, drainage basins derived from digital elevation data. The data collected fell into roughly two categories: biophysical (e.g. runoff, population, dams) attributes suitable for the spatial analysis and Essay on Heredity, economic/political (e.g. GDP per characters, capita, overall relations, ethnic minorities) attributes. Although some of the variables used are quantitative and on Heredity, can be measured, the indicators comprising political category are qualitative in nature (internationalisation of a basin, future water infrastructure, water treaties). The full description of the attributes and techniques employed is iv graph given below.

In pulling various water-related attributes together in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, order to draw a picture of a basin#146;s specific conflict proneness, population growth is adult among key factors for assessing water scarcity. The relation of water access to population distribution should therefore be assessed. As a river basin rarely follows political borders, per basin population density instead of per Essay on Heredity, region population density was evaluated. In doing so, the Landscan gridded population of the world (Landscan, 2001) was used to INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, approximate population distribution. Building on the Landscan data proved very effective as the Landscan team used remotely sensed slope, land cover, road proximity and night time lights to refine the Essay and Hormones, GIS-based gridded population cell values, providing the book characters, best accurate dataset. Gridcell values for the Aral Sea Basin were summed to combine this table with the Amu Darya Basin, thus calculating a population density for that area, as described by Yoffe (2001) (Figure 4.1). Runoff is considered the total amount of surface flow in a given area. Any assessment of a water resource related issue would be incomplete without some approximation of water availability within the study area (Yoffe, 2001). Data for Essay on Heredity and Hormones the Amu Darya runoff were obtained through a spatial resolution grid of composite runoff fields based on rollo, observed river discharge and simulated water balances (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000). The project was the outcome of a joint effort of the Complex Systems Research Centre at the University of Essay and Hormones, New Hampshire and the Global Runoff Data Centre in Koblenz, Germany. The project combined #147;#133;two sources of information (observed discharge and simulated runoff) to estimate continental runoff#148; which was #147;the most reliable assessment at present#148; (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000).

To estimate the on Obama, composite runoff for the Amu Darya, runoff data for the eight gauging stations located in the Amu Darya basin were used. On Heredity And Hormones. The cell values in mm/yr were multiplied by the area of the associated grid cell in sq. km to produce a runoff volume grid (mm*km 2 /yr) (Figure 4.3). The third key factor in assessing water scarcity is the number and density of dams in a study area. According to Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), when statistically testing potential water conflict indicators, dams themselves did not appear to be a potential indicator for water conflict, yet in basins without water treaties lower dam density basins tended to exhibit slightly less conflict. With negative overall relations between countries and absence of a transboundary institution, unilaterally setting a large dam or diversion project can provide a context for the conflict over water, while positive relations and presence of a transboundary institution can mitigate the adult, situation. To determine the number of dams and dam density for the Amu Darya Basin, global dataset provided by Wolf was used, based on the Digital Chart of the World data and Essay and Hormones, International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) World Register of Dams (Figure 4.4). More importantly, large proposed water infrastructure projects that proved to rollo, have significant influence on on Heredity, the whole water situation in the basin were identified (e.g. the Rogun Dam in rollo weeks narnia, Tajikistan, etc.). Internationalising a basin provides an Essay and Hormones, important setting for future water conflict (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Those basins whose management institutions were developed under a single jurisdiction and then became divided among two or more nations when that jurisdiction suddenly collapsed, showed much higher levels of conflict (Yoffe, 2001). In order to check for iv graph the active nationalist movements who might cause future internationalisation of the Amu Darya Basin, data from two major sources have been analysed: Minorities At Risk Project, at the University of Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Maryland#146;s Centre for International Development and Conflict Management (Gurr, 2000) and Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO, 2002).

Low per capita GDP ( $765/person according to the World Bank lowest income country definition) was identified to be one of the indicators of conflict over water (Yoffe, 2001). As Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) put it, #147;the higher the per rollo, capita GDP, or the lower population density, the greater the co-operation #150; barely#148;. To establish macro-economic data for the Amu Darya Basin countries, the World Bank data for 2000 were used. It is pointed out (Yoffe, 2001) that countries that co-operate in general also co-operate over water, and countries with overall unfriendly relations are also unfriendly over water issues. And Hormones. To construct a #145;friendship-hostility scale#146; as appeared in Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), a rough water event intensity scale was built employing the technique described in Section 3.5. In gathering country-to-country events and interactions, two major sources were used: the WNC and Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Both build on rollo weeks, the reports about Central Asia by the two leading Russian news agencies #150; ITAR-TASS and Interfax, as well as on and Hormones, the news coverages by Eurasianet and the Mashhad Voice of the rollo narnia, Islamic Republic of Iran (Tajikistan news). Notably, the water event data are based on public reports and therefore lack reports on non-public co-operation (#147;picnic table talks#148;, non-official visits, etc.) Generally, freshwater treaties mitigate conflict, and no or limited freshwater treaties for a basin increase the likeliness of conflict over water.

To analyse existing freshwater treaties for the Amu Darya Basin, the Essay, International Freshwater Treaties Database at Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002), containing a full text of over 400 international freshwater related agreements, was used. Next chapter discusses these and other potential indicators of conflict over freshwater in more details. 4 Water Conflict Potential in the Amu Darya Basin. The Amu Darya#146;s population is extremely unevenly distributed. Only in Uzbekistan which has the region#146;s highest population density (average 50 people per CASE STUDY: INVERTASE SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, km 2 , with total population of about 25 million in 2002), 80 percent of land is desert. In 1990, the rural population occupied a total of 4.5 million hectares of Essay on Heredity and Hormones, arable land, or about 16 percent of all available agricultural land in the country, and thus the effective density of rural population was 2.7 people per hectare of arable land. Given the rate of natural population growth in Uzbekistan being one of the highest among the former Soviet republics, rural population steadily increased from 1984 to 1994 to 61 percent, while the arable land and cultivated area remained practically unchanged (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Population distribution in the Amu Darya Basin varies accordingly, from Essay, 20-30 people per Essay and Hormones, km 2 in the downstream sections of the river (except for CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION the river stretch just before flowing into the Aral Sea that runs across the Uzbek territory and where population density is about 40-50 people/km 2 ) to 25-40 people/km 2 in the middle course and to 20-35 people/km 2 in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1: Population density in on Heredity, the Amu Darya Basin (1995) The population pattern in Central Asia has remained the rollo weeks narnia, same over on Heredity thousands of years.

People tend to inhabit fertile oases and valleys rich in water. Many human habitats can be found located along the rivers (Figure 4.2), and almost all of iv graph, them date from the pre-Islamic times. Figure 4.2: Population density in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Akmansoy, 1998. In terms of runoff (Figure 4.3), the Amu Darya can be divided into three sections: an upstream section, a middle course section, and a downstream section. The upstream section extends from the on Heredity and Hormones, point of confluence of the Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers up to the town of Kerki, the middle course is the Marxist between Kerki and the Tyuyamuyun Gorge, and the downstream section is confined to the mouth of the river. In the upstream section, the flow of the Amu Darya steadily increases due to the Kunduz, Kafirnigan, Surkhandarya, and Sherabad tributaries.

Figure 4.3: Estimated Annual Runoff in the Amu Darya Basin. The reverse situation can be observed in the middle course and in the downstream section: the flow gradually declines due to natural losses of runoff and on Heredity, huge water diversions for agricultural needs. It is quite difficult to evaluate those natural and anthropogenic losses as the data from many gauging stations for the last two decades are not available. Rollo Narnia. Average annual runoff at on Heredity and Hormones the town of Kerki (upstream section) between 1957-1987 was 1903 m 3 /s, together with water diverted to Karakum and Karshi canals, 1351 m 3 /s in the Tyuyamuyun Gorge (middle course) in adult attachment, the same period and 656 m 3 /s in on Heredity and Hormones, the downstream section (Ivanov and adult, Izmaiylov, 1995). Essay On Heredity. Figure 4.4 represents total number of iv graph lamp, dams per Amu Darya riparian. Figure 4.4: Number of dams per country in the Amu Darya Basin. Unilateral decisions to embark on new water projects are not uncommon in Central Asia. While providing for national solutions, such decisions and further actions are among key drivers of potential water conflict. Trying to Essay, find a way out of the existing situation, some Central Asian governments were forced to develop plans for building more infrastructure to get control over water resources.

Two projects which are the legacy of the Soviet-style gigantic undertakings and which caused extremely negative reaction among neighbours are discussed below. Started in 1976, the Rogun Dam, on the Vakhsh river, was projected to be 335 metres high #150; the highest in the world - with the capacity to produce 3,600 MW of energy. The dam was expected to begin operation in 1993. However, in 1990 the construction was halted due to the escalating political situation which turned into a 5-year civil war in Tajikistan. In 1993, a massive flood destroyed most of for filament lamp, what has been already built. By that time, $802 million was invested into and Hormones, the project, with the total cost of $2.3 billion (Dyuzheva, 2002; Yerofeeva, 2002).

Figure 4.5: Power stations in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya. Source: Dyuzheva, 2002. Tajikistan already controls 40 percent of the flow of the Amu Darya through the be a offense, Nurek reservoir. The Rogun would put it firmly in control of the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, river, allowing to control the flow into Uzbekistan#146;s Surkhandarya and bones, Kashkadarya Provinces that already experience sharp water shortages. Knowing Uzbekistan#146;s opposition to the project, Tajikistan continues to press with the completion of the on Heredity, Rogun Dam that would need $700 million to rollo, $1 billion to complete. Most international finance institutions are reluctant to put any money into the project, claiming that it would cost more than any benefit it might offer. They are also aware that the project would seriously strain relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

However, getting Tajik government concentrate on more feasible, realistic and low-cost project yielded no fruits. On 29 October 2002, the Baltic Construction Company, one of the biggest Russian investment/construction groups, became a contractor and investor for completion of the Rogun Dam project (Dyuzheva, 2002; ICG, 2002b). In October 2000, Turkmenistan began work on Essay and Hormones, a huge artificial lake in CASE STUDY: WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, the Karakum Desert, which was pompously called Golden Century Lake. The lake is Essay and Hormones being built in adult attachment, the Karashor natural depression in Essay, the north-western part of the Karakum desert. The depression covers 3,500 to rollo narnia, 4,000 km 2 and has a maximum depth of 70 to 100 metres.

Once completed, the lake would contain some 132 to 150 km 3 of water. Drainage water is to be diverted to the lake from the five provinces through two major collector-canals. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. The project cost is attachment up to $6 billion, and it will be financed from on Heredity, state budget. The first stage is to be completed in 2004 and the entire project covers 10 years. There are rumours that special nuclear power station will be built nearby to use a lake as a cooling pond. The government holds that only drainage water will be used to weeks, supply the lake (Pereverten, 2000; ICG, 2002b). The project raised immediate concerns in neighbouring Uzbekistan that the lake cannot be sustained by drainage water alone and about 10 cubic kilometres of water from the Amu Darya will be needed to maintain its level. Uzbekistan argues that drainage water has a high salt content and will gradually evaporate in the terrible heat of the Karakum desert creating a new Aral. By increasing the water use from the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Amu Darya, Turkmenistan would leave the rollo, southern Uzbek provinces without any water. If Ashgabat will go ahead with the project, it will inevitably lead to tensions with Uzbekistan (Insarova, 2002).

Just like the Toktogul reservoir on the Syr Darya, this ambitious and costly undertaking risks becoming a source of conflict with Uzbekistan. Essay And Hormones. Turkmenistan also threatens to resettle about one million ethnic Uzbeks from the southern province of Dashhovuz to the Karakum desert once the lake is completed (ICG, 2002b). 4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan is one of the 13 provinces, or oblasts, in Uzbekistan. STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION. Its history began in 1925, when the Karakalpaks (a Turkic-language Muslim group whose name literally means black hat) were given their own territory, declared the Autonomous Oblast, within the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). In 1930, the Karakalpak AO was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, where it remained until 1936, when it was joined to the Uzbek SSR and on Heredity and Hormones, elevated to iv graph for filament, the status of the Autonomous SSR (Hanks, 2000). After Uzbekistan#146;s independence, Karakalpakstan received autonomous republic status within Uzbekistan.

Since that time, the central government in Tashkent has maintained pressure and tight economic ties that have kept the republic from exerting full independence. Figure 4.6: Uzbekistan#146;s administrative units (including Karakalpakstan) Today, the population of Karakalpakstan is on Heredity and Hormones about 1.3 million people who live on a territory of about 168,000 km 2 . Located in the fertile lower reaches of the Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of irrigation agriculture. However, because it is a tail end of the Amu Darya, Karakalpakstan received all the pollution the river has accumulated along its course. The health statistics (morbidity and mortality data) collectively reflect the poor and deteriorating health of the iv graph for filament, people downstream. My personal experience of work for the Eye Cancer Register Project at Essay on Heredity and Hormones the Institute of Oncology and Radiology in Tashkent showed that while eye cancer incidence in Karakalpakstan was relatively low, mortality rate was the highest in Uzbekistan (2.2 people per 100,000 people, compared to lamp, 0.2 to 0.3/100,000 in on Heredity, other provinces of Uzbekistan) (Mouratova, 1992). More generally, the Karakalpaks showed one of the highest rates of CASE WOOD SPECIES, cancer, comparable only to Kazakhs living in Muynak area of Karakalpakstan. Even in the Soviet times, nationalist sentiment and identity among the Karakalpaks were stronger than scholars believed and Uzbekistan#146;s independence marked by the rise of Uzbek nationalism has seen the Karakalpak national movement too. However, this group known as the Khalk Mapi was quickly suppressed and driven underground.

Although the Karakalpaks never demonstrated publicly for the formal independence and the republic is not a member of UNPO, the Uzbek authorities view a possible nationalist tendency in Karakalpakstan as seriously threatening Uzbekistan#146;s integrity. In the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, meanwhile, little study has been undertaken to go deep into the question of a possible disintegration of Uzbekistan. Various researchers have briefly pointed out adult attachment, that Karakalpakstan has the potential to Essay on Heredity, claim its independence from Uzbekistan (Klötzli, 1994; Baechler, 1998; Lietzman and Vest, 1999). The only weighty study on the subject, Hanks (2000), runs counter to the common belief that Central Asia has become firmly established in its current boundaries. Hanks supports that there are four factors that may contribute to the Karakalpak nationalism, notably: (1) a separate cultural identity; (2) a history of territorial identity and adult attachment, autonomy; (3) economic underdevelopment; and (4) severe environmental damage, resulting in drastic decline in on Heredity and Hormones, human conditions. Indeed, Karakalpakstan is the only Uzbek province where Uzbeks are not the attachment, majority. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. Unlike Tajiks in CASE IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES, Samarkand and Bukhara, the Karakalpaks are allowed to learn in their native language in schools and 2.6% of the school-age population are enrolled in Karakalpak schools which means that most Karakalpaks are insistent that their children be educated in their mother tongue. And the Karakalpak language is Essay quite different from the Uzbek one being linguistically closer to the Kazakh language just as the whole Karakalpak culture is.

Historically and ethnically, Karakalpaks, with their nomadic culture, would show best in characters, Kazakhstan where such culture is persistent and where Karakalpaks are still considered oralman , i.e. members of the Kazakh community living abroad. On Heredity. During the past 12 years, as much as 270,000 Karakalpaks, or 20% of the CASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST, population, left Uzbekistan for Kazakhstan and Russia, largely due to the unbearable human and environmental conditions in the Aral Sea area (Glantz, 2002). Small, van der Meer and Upshur (2001) quote the Essay, study showing that 48.8% of respondents wanted to should cyberbullying be a criminal, leave their homes because of the environment, and one half of those wanted to move out of the Aral Sea area. In economic terms, Karakalpakstan represents a remote geographical hinterland, absent from global economy, with virtually no industrial development and soaring unemployment rates. Essay On Heredity. Agricultural sector is on the verge of collapse and fisheries, once a profitable sector, disappeared along with the whole Aral Sea. Due to the fact that most imported goods are shipped to Tashkent, 1000 kilometres away from Nukus, capital of Karakalpakstan, fewer goods are offered there, adding to the general quality of life being the lowest in the country.

Officially, 100,000 people were unemployed in should be a criminal, 2002 as a result of the multi-year drought that began in 1999 and by 2001 reduced cotton production in Karakalpakstan by 75% of the Essay on Heredity, norm. Rice production was only 0.25% of the norm (Glantz, 2002). The situation aggravated so much that people are slaughtering livestock because animals started dying of bones characters, thirst. In a region where cattle have implications for the future, killing cows means losing a major asset (Kohn, 2001). All this resulted in the fact that most Karakalpaks began viewing themselves as the environmental victims and hostages of the central power, first in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Moscow, then in Tashkent. Why don#146;t Karakalpaks revolt? #150; ponders Bissell (2002). So far, only what can be called #147;a foot vote#148;, i.e. the exodus of the Karakalpak population to neighbouring Kazakhstan, has happened.

ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official as saying that people of Karakalpakstan #147;#133;are patient and weeks narnia, put their hope in God and Essay, the President#148;. Indeed, an independent Karakalpakstan may be unlikely in the future. Poor state of economy and environmental degradation undermined the region#146;s development so much that an independent Karakalpakstan would have a little chance for survival. But this in no way lessens the potential for the region to destabilise Uzbekistan and eventually the whole Central Asia (Hanks, 2000). Possible is also the Indonesian scenario #150; when the central regime grows weak, nationalist claims in the provinces become stronger and may eventually lead to a secession. Northern Afghanistan belongs to the Amu Darya Basin. Until recently, before the US-led campaign against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, this area was de facto independent from the rest of the adult, country, remaining firmly under control of the Uzbek and Tajik warlords opposing the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, regime in Kabul. Today, when the should, central government of Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Hamid Karzai is trying to spread its authority on the rest of the country, the IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS, question of separate northern provinces is less important in light of the Essay on Heredity, emerging Afghanistan integrity. Before 2001, Afghanistan was itself the factor of risk for the Basin.

It is still unclear what share would Afghanistan#146;s agricultural sector require from the Amu Darya water and when. It is clear though that Afghanistan will demand its share and that it is CASE IMMOBILIZATION SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION entitled to that share under the international agreements signed between the USSR and on Heredity and Hormones, Afghanistan in 1946 ( Frontier Agreement between Afghanistan and CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SAWDUST, the USSR , 13 June 1946) and 1958 ( Treaty concerning the regime to on Heredity, the Soviet-Afghan frontier , 18 January 1958, and Protocol between the USSR and Afghanistan concerning the joint execution of works for bones book characters the integrated utilisation of the water resources in the frontier section of the Amu Darya , 25 June 1958). The 1946 Agreement subjects all matters associated with the water use to specific agreements between the two countries and Essay and Hormones, provides for the establishment of a joint commission. Adult Attachment. Under it, Afghanistan is entitled to Essay and Hormones, use up to 9 km 3 of water from the Pyandj river. Under the Treaty of 18 January 1958, the narnia, two countries commit themselves to take joint measures to prevent changes in the course of frontier rivers, streams or canals and to correct the effects of Essay on Heredity and Hormones, such changes and share the costs equally. Furthermore, they commit themselves to Essay on Obama the Marxist, prevent water pollution, to on Heredity, exchange regular information on the level and volume of rollo, water and meteorological data and to adopt a flood warning system. Finally, the Essay, 1958 Protocol envisages the joint integrated utilisation of the frontier sections of the Amu Darya (Nanni, 1996). Since #147;localisable#148; international agreements (i.e. those relating to identifiable parts of the bones, territory of states) are subject to state succession under international law, these agreements remain in force for the newly independent Central Asian states (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Until now, Afghanistan has used only about 2 km 3 of the 9 km 3 of water it is entitled to use under the treaties. Meanwhile, the Pyandj river has the annual flow of 19 km 3 , and Afghanistan#146;s fresh involvement into the process of water use would radically change the Amu Darya flow if the new Afghan government decides to develop agriculture in the North.

Plans of Afghanistan to increase its water share caused the respective reaction in neighbouring countries. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official quotes as saying, #147;God forbid that we should give water also to Afghanistan. What will then become of us?#148; Given that the rehabilitation of Afghanistan is impossible without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya and that water resources are vital for Afghan people to feed themselves, the offense, potential for water conflict in the Basin increases proportionally. Afghanistan#146;s demands will have to be taken into account when negotiating the water situation in the Basin (Fuchinoue, Tsukatani and Toderich, 2002). All Amu Darya Basin countries are considered low-income countries, i.e. those where GDP is less than $750, according to the World Bank classification. Below is per capita GDP in US$ for the four Amu Darya riparians: Source: World Bank, 2000. Aggregate average GDP per capita for on Heredity and Hormones the Amu Darya Basin is $461.3.

Given the extreme poverty people of Afghanistan still live in, this indicator may actually be even less. In political science, overall relations indicate an interstate affect which in turn highly influences regional co-operation over water. By scoring an affective content of each of 100 events occurred in the relations between the Amu Darya riparians in 1995-2003, of which only 24 events concerned the region#146;s water resources, it was possible to draw a rough picture of how the Amu Darya Basin countries feel toward each other. For the Essay on Obama, purposes of this study, an Essay on Heredity, event is defined as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation that occur within an international river basin, and water event as the instance of narnia, regional conflict and co-operation over water resources of that specific basin (Yoffe, 2001). Essay On Heredity. Every event of interaction between two or more riparians mentioned in a database was grouped and included into either Table I representing overall relations in the Amu Darya Basin or into Table II representing water-related events in should cyberbullying offense, the basin (see Appendix for on Heredity and Hormones the two tables). Each table contains the following information:

the date of the incident; riparians involved; the on Obama, intensity of the event, based on the Water Event Intensity Scale (see previous chapter); a summary describing the event; main issue area (economic co-operation, water quality, etc.); the source of information. Three Amu Darya riparian countries #150; Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - have been considered. Afghanistan was excluded from the analysis as until 2001 this country itself manifested a serious threat for the region#146;s security and by the time of and Hormones, preparing this study the central authority in Kabul was still in the beginning of the process of STUDY: WOOD SPECIES, integrating the and Hormones, country. At the same time, northern Afghanistan was far from pacified and heavy fights between local warlords have been reported. It is apparent that overall unfriendly attitude prevails in the relations between the riparians and despite friendship agreements signed and close economic ties the situation has repeatedly sharpened when Uzbekistan having the region#146;s biggest military potential was not long in using force against its neighbours not even trying to enter into negotiation. This dangerous trend may as well extend on the water relations, and according to narnia, informal sources it already has (situation around the Tyuyamuyun and the Toktogul).

Quite frequently, the relations between the three have become seriously strained and for several occasions the countries were on the verge of an open conflict. Once it was an open conflict when on 16 August 1999 the Uzbek planes bombed Tajik and Kyrgyz territory targeting a group of Islamic militants. Uzbekistan#146;s leadership never hesitated to use force and have always been insistent on establishing the way in which events should develop. The country has also followed this course in its relations with Turkmenistan whose self-glorifying regime has much in common with the Uzbek one. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. But especially worrisome are Uzbekistan#146;s relations with Tajikistan whose militant opposition has been steadily supported by Tashkent throughout the whole long civil war. Attachment. Claiming support for the Tajik government, Uzbekistan continued to feed ethnic Uzbek guerrillas on the Tajik territory and opened its borders for them when they were escaping from the Tajik troops. Figure 4.7: Overall relations between the and Hormones, Amu Darya Basin countries (excluding Afghanistan) in adult, 1995-2003. Neither there was a shortage of assurances in eternal friendship and on Heredity and Hormones, fraternal love, against a chilly history of land mines Uzbekistan used to plant along the entire length of Tajik border to CASE STUDY: ON VARIOUS SAWDUST SPECIES, build a ludicrous protection against Islamic terrorists and cutting off the pipes near the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in Turkmenistan. The treaties and agreements have been signed as well, but little action followed to Essay on Heredity, implement them. Instead, the countries continued with hostile policies. All in lamp, all, 4 incidents of #147;small scale military acts#148;, 7 #147;political-military hostile actions#148;, 8 #147;diplomatic-economic hostile actions#148; and 7 #147;strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction#148; have been registered.

In addition, the countries constantly displayed #147;discord in on Heredity and Hormones, interaction#148; (18 incidents), versus a much smaller number of events considered potentially positive (signing agreements, establishing common policy, visit of head of state, etc.) While the picture of overall relations is definitely skewed to the left and tends to iv graph, manifest rather conflict than co-operation, the history of relations over water looks at the first glance more co-operative. Figure 4.8: Water-related events in the Amu Darya Basin in 1995-2002. Dozens of agreements have been entered into between the riparians. Essay On Heredity. Some of these agreements had a status of an international water treaty designed to ease tensions between the basin countries. Meanwhile, the rollo, situation remains the same because the leaders prefer to do things informally rather than on the basis of an open agreement. However, when it comes to addressing conferences and summits, the presidents are always ready to mouth the rhetoric of regional co-operation while never lingering to use force against their #147;friendly#148; neighbours (ICG, 2002b).

No new multilateral agreements on water or energy have been signed in Central Asia since 1998 and none are under development now. Major existing agreements like the Almaty Agreement and the Syr Darya Framework Agreement are implemented poorly, largely due to on Heredity and Hormones, the lack of co-ordination in national water policies and legislation across the region. Some of the Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have expressed a strong desire to develop new agreements that satisfy concepts of international watercourse law. However, there is still reluctance on the part of the major water using countries, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, to enter into discussions on this issue. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of CASE INVERTASE ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST, international water law. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and, in Essay on Heredity, case of the Afghanistan situation in narnia, the Amu Darya basin, Turkmenistan that this is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon (McKinney, 2003). As discussed earlier, the Essay on Heredity, border problem is among additional factors that could further worsen the water situation in Central Asia. The Soviet-made borders in Central Asia provide a continuous possibility for their redefinition (Gleason, 2001). For Filament Lamp. There were several border incidents between Uzbekistan and its neighbours in the past when the Essay, former unilaterally commenced a survey of its border and STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, moved its boundary posts, as happened in early 2000 when three hundred kilometres of Kazakhstan#146;s territory suddenly appeared to be within Uzbekistan.

After Kazakhstan objected, a bilateral demarcation commission was set up. Essay On Heredity And Hormones. As of early 2003, Uzbekistan#146;s border disputes with Kazakhstan have been completely settled and border delimitation with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan was close to the end. Particular problem in terms of border situation is Central Asia#146;s two major rivers. Both Syr Darya and Amu Darya pass through several international borders, and in some parts the Turkmenistan border with Uzbekistan is defined by the watercourse of the Amu Darya. The border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan is the Amu Darya, and one of the rivers that form the Amu Darya, the Pyandj, serves as the border between Tajikistan and iv graph for filament, Afghanistan. Toset, Gleditsch and Hegre (2000) define three types of relationship over the shared river resources: river boundary; mixed; and upstream/downstream. While the latter, in the authors#146; opinion, has a higher conflict potential, a river boundary situation, when a country on the left bank diverts water and a country on the right bank retaliates by taking water to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, its own side of the river, is no less serious.

Navigation problems and transborder pollution add to the problem dramatically. Bones. It is argued that the longer the border, the more opportunities for potential contentious issues for conflict. However, there could not be found much evidence to Essay and Hormones, state that sharing a river as a boundary provided the major source of conflict. Adult Attachment. In the Amu Darya case, a common border lying along the river watercourse may contribute to the generally tense relations both between downstream (Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan) and upstream (Afghanistan/Tajikistan) riparians. Trade issues between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan further complicate the relations between the two countries. Trade in staple goods like cotton, water, natural gas, and oil is conducted by state agencies.

Thus, in case of failure to pay or any other irritation it is very convenient to suspend deliveries temporally, close border or increase visa requirements, as happened more than once. Furthermore, transborder trade, traditional and on Heredity and Hormones, supporting many families in this area, is subject to now thawing, now frosting regional affairs. No single transborder trade regulatory regime exists between the Amu Darya riparians (Green, 2001; Spechler, 2002). 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. On 6 February 1911, a powerful earthquake in should offense, the Pamir region of Gorny Badakhshan, in what is now Tajikistan, caused a 2.2 cubic kilometre piece of the Muzkol Range to collapse, sealing off the Murgab Gorge and creating a 500-metre natural dam. The new canyon became soon filled with water and formed the Essay, Sarez Lake, 75 kilometres long and 505 metres deep and bones characters, containing 17 cubic kilometres of glacial water.

Experts say that this unstable natural dam called the Usoy Obstruction after the name of Essay on Heredity, a village buried under it could break as a result of an earthquake or landslide and release the water into on Obama the Marxist, the Pyandj. This would endanger millions of people in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. On Heredity And Hormones. So far, efforts by the Tajik government to install the STUDY:, early warning system components on the dam, along the lake and downstream under the terms of an international tender were sustained locally, without getting other riparians involved. And Hormones. Rather relative stability in the Tajik mountains that still remember a devastating civil war in the 1990s call many good plans in iv graph lamp, question. The weakest point in any strategy concerning the Sarez Lake is funding which might be very significant. Tajikistan alone would never afford million-dollar project costs.

Yet none of the Amu Darya riparians concerned is willing to consider the and Hormones, problem of the Sarez Lake its own (Sievers, 2002; Volkov, 2003). With the advent of independence, Central Asian states have quickly become the parties, and in rollo, some cases ratified, the international environmental agreements and and Hormones, conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, no international convention related in either event to water has been acceded to, even to the Convention on iv graph, Wetlands of Essay and Hormones, International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, not to mention the should cyberbullying be a offense, Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Only Kazakhstan is a party to the Convention on on Heredity and Hormones, the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Sievers, 2002). Vinogradov and adult, Langford (2001) argue that some regional water treaties (the 1998 Syr Darya Framework Agreement) do address the particularly sensitive issue of the water utilisation in the region and proceed from the interest in Essay on Heredity, joint use of water resources to seeking common definitions and to weeks, acknowledging international legal principles relevant to the use of transboundary water resources, such as the provision referring to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, the joint management clause based on the #147;basin principle#148; which provides for the equality of the parties#146; rights to use and responsibility to ensure rational utilisation and protection of the #147;common and integral#148; water resources of the region. Adult. While this provision is Essay on Heredity and Hormones certainly an improvement over earlier arrangements based on the concepts of adult attachment, #147;water apportionment#148; and #147;maximum utilisation,#148; the principle of #147;equitable and reasonable utilisation and on Heredity and Hormones, participation#148;, in accordance with Article 5 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of should offense, International Watercourses, should be recognised. This principle takes into consideration such factors as geography, hydrographic, hydrological, climatic, ecological and Essay and Hormones, other factors of a natural character; social and economic needs of a watercourse; the population dependent on the water resources; existing and potential uses; conservation, protection, development and economy of water resources use; and the availability of alternatives to a planned or existing use (UN, 1997). Of particular importance for Central Asia#146;s water resources are the principles of the 1997 UN Convention which include the obligation not to cause significant harm to other watercourse states (UN, 1997, art. 7); the general obligation to co-operate through joint mechanisms or commissions (Ibid., art. 8); to CASE ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, exchange information on a regular basis (Ibid., art. 9); and to provide timely notification of planned measures and emergency situations which may have a significant adverse effect upon and Hormones other watercourse states (Ibid., arts.

12,28). Essay The Marxist. Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another state, the party responsible for causing such harm is on Heredity obliged, in consultation with the affected state, to eliminate or mitigate such harm, and where appropriate, to discuss the question of compensation (Ibid., art. 7; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). However, none of Central Asian countries have ever acceded to the 1997 UN Convention. Broad public participation and access to environmental information are essential in forming meaningful local water and environmental policy. The participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who play important role in informing citizens of their opportunities to for filament lamp, participate requires access to accurate and timely information. When the information about the state of the environment is available to citizens, they can express public opinion regarding various issues, particularly water use and Essay, environmental protection (McKinney, 2003). It is adult not a case, however, for the sealed societies such as Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan where access to any information, let alone environmental one, is on Heredity severely restricted. Rollo Narnia. Not surprisingly, these two states are not the parties to the 1998 UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to on Heredity, Justice in weeks, Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention), although other three Central Asian countries have acceded to it (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) or ratified it (Kazakhstan). Six indicators used in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, the analysis were not sufficient to identify with exact accuracy a level of potential conflict over water in lamp, the Amu Darya Basin, yet some results summarised in Table 5.1 are still evident. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Rapid institutional development, big water infrastructure projects. · on-going construction of the Rogun Dam. · completion of Golden Century Lake. · possible secession of on Heredity, Karakalpakstan from Uzbekistan. · Afghanistan#146;s demands for water. Potential for conflict over water resources in the Amu Darya Basin remains to be high, despite one of the six indicators (population density) tends to run counter to this conclusion.

This allows for the possibility to say that population density can be indicator of conflict only in such overpopulated places as the Ferghana Valley which has already seen outbreaks of Essay on Obama, violence in the past. On the country level, it is Essay on Heredity and Hormones overall unfriendly relations fuelled by the leaders#146; personal competition, as well as rapid institutional change that could account for worsened water affairs in CASE STUDY: ON VARIOUS SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, the region. Over the on Heredity, last years, several new points of contention have arisen, particularly in the continuing tensions between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan over the Rogun Dam and between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan around Golden Century Lake. Not in the nearest future though, the potential for iv graph lamp further internationalisation - rapid rise of Afghanistan as a state and possible Karakalpakstan#146;s claim for independence - could contribute to these tensions seriously and disintegrate the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, basin even further. In absence of solid legal base relevant to narnia, the international water law and mechanisms responsible for enforcing it, the region#146;s tensions are deepening and threaten to destabilise not only Central Asia, but also neighbouring countries. The role of indicators of water conflict in Essay, identifying and, in future, measuring a basin#146;s conflict proneness is critical for those who will be involved in resolving disputes over river freshwater. CASE ON VARIOUS SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION. The water conflict indicators allow for identifying specific tasks to concentrate efforts on, such as legal and institutional aspects of Central Asia#146;s water disputes, and pinpoint potential #147;apples of discord#148;, such as big water infrastructure projects. 5.7 Conclusions and Essay and Hormones, recommendations. While wasting water several times more than in the Middle East, people in Central Asia do not account for CASE STUDY: ON VARIOUS SAWDUST huge water diversions. In fact, it is Essay agricultural sector and, more specifically, cotton growing that is to attachment, blame for the major anthropogenic loss of water from the on Heredity, Amu Darya. Downstream riparians #150; Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the region#146;s major cotton producers, are unable to abandon cotton production because it is perhaps the only hard currency earning sector for them, in STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, the absence of developed small sector regulations and, in case of Uzbekistan, of hard currency convertibility.

With upstream riparians claiming the old Soviet water allocation schemes to be limiting the development of their own agriculture, downstream countries should reconsider their attitudes towards cotton and rice irrigation and embark on a real reform of small and medium sector, including farmland privatisation. Cotton is Essay a root of evil in Central Asia, not its saviour from hardships of economic underdevelopment. Central Asian governments did not give up their plans to weeks, develop the on Heredity and Hormones, Soviet-style giant projects which are costly and environmentally devastating. It is fair to say that these would offer only short-term relief and would destabilise already fragile situation. Tajikistan should terminate the for filament, contract with the on Heredity, Baltic Construction Company for the construction of the Rogun Dam. Turkmenistan should abandon the marantic idea of building the iv graph, Golden Century Lake which is being built in the desert where water will simply evaporate. Any idea of diverting Siberian rivers to on Heredity, Central Asia should be immediately shelved as environmentally dubious and hugely expensive. It is time for Central Asia to think globally while acting locally. Whereas Karakalpakstan is unlikely to secede from Uzbekistan today, this in no way lessens such a potential for rollo narnia the area in Essay and Hormones, future. Cyberbullying Be A Offense. Sad experience of the former Yugoslavia which continues to Essay and Hormones, break down ten years after the book, initial disintegration shows that any multiethnic state is prone to sudden and irreversible change in its structure. This is especially indicative of the former Soviet Union on which territory there are still several unrecognised statelets claiming their independence, and there will be more, as a result of arbitrary Soviet boundary planning.

The priorities of people of Karakalpakstan should be taken into account when it comes to the water allocation and use, and a real Karakalpak autonomy enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan should be given to Essay and Hormones, the region. Adult Attachment. Nonetheless, existing repressive regime in Uzbekistan is very unlikely to loose its grip on the Karakalpaks and tensions are expected to on Heredity, grow. Given that Afghanistan#146;s rehabilitation is unlikely without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya, Afghanistan#146;s water demands will have to be taken into consideration when negotiating the water situation in the Basin. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan that the Afghanistan situation is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon. Interstate legislative co-ordination for the Amu Darya water resources should be tailored to fit sustainable development of the STUDY: INVERTASE ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST, Amu Darya Basin before proceeding with reconstruction assistance in Afghanistan. Since independence, dozens of and Hormones, agreements regarding joint water use have been signed. However, fewer agreements are implemented.

Lack of regional co-operation in Central Asia has become problem so serious that in Essay on Obama the Marxist, environmental terms it has global implications. Fearful of disrupting existing patterns of water use in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, their agricultural policies, two most stubborn riparians, Turkmenistan and CASE INVERTASE ON VARIOUS SAWDUST, Uzbekistan, claimed their commitment to bilateral relations. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of international water law and to a multilateral approach. International donor agencies should continue their efforts to on Heredity and Hormones, bring downstream countries to weeks narnia, the round table to discuss the water issues in Central Asia and to press them to drop the projects that could potentially harm their neighbours. That is possible only if adequate and sufficient information on Essay on Heredity and Hormones, the environment is available to any party concerned. Unless single information network regarding the state of the environment exists in Central Asia, with the reference to the Aarhus Convention, local repressive regimes will be certain about their last word in the never-ending story of Central Asian water crisis. Akmansoy Sandra. 1998. Aral Sea Water Rights. Online Report No 3, Center in for filament lamp, Research in Water Resources, The University of Texas at Essay on Heredity and Hormones Austin, available at:

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TJK president issued a decree on nationalization of power lines and major gas supplies which UZB used to supply power and gas to should criminal, its Ferghana Valley. Decree had political implications, against a cold spell in relations between TJK and Essay on Heredity, UZB. TJK and Essay on Obama the Marxist, UZB signed an intergovernmental agreement on the development and deepening of economic co-operation; UZB undertook to Essay, consider the Essay on Obama the Marxist, possibility of reducing the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, natural gas prices to TJK in bones, 1996. TJK and UZB signed a deal on natural gas, freight transit and on Heredity, the development of communications links. UZB said it wanted to become another guarantor of the peace process in TJK, called on the TJK opposition to search for the consensus with all regions and conflicting forces in TJK. TJK media reported that part of the UZB senior military establishment is supporting the CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION SPECIES, antigovernment forces in TJK. UZB denied media allegations that UZB interferes in TJK#146;s internal affairs, said UZB committed to the principle of non-interference in domestic affairs of TJK. A group of unidentified attackers infiltrated from Essay on Heredity and Hormones, UZB assaulted TJK border post; two border guards killed. The first such incident occurred in March. An exchange of fire between the border posts of TJK and UZB; there were wounded. TJK and Essay, UZB officials met to on Heredity, discuss stabilisation of political and military situation on rollo, the border.

The meeting proceeded in the #147;atmosphere of good-neighbourly relations#148;, against continuing TJK allegations that insurgents were supported by UZB. UZB described as false reports saying that militant group came to TJK from UZB, said that #147;UZB, like no other, is interested in the establishment of and Hormones, long-lasting#133; peace and stability in UZB#148;. Phone talks between the presidents; congratulated each other and #147;fraternal#148; people of TJK and UZB with the New Year. TJK president arrived with one-day working visit in UZB; five documents, including an intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for bones book characters the delivery of goods and gas supplies in 1998 and TJK#146;s national debt. Joint communiqué and agreements on Essay on Heredity and Hormones, co-operation in public health, culture, humanitarian aid, science, technology and information also signed. UZB foreign minister at his meeting with TJK#146;s president discussed various aspects of regional security and the progress in the implementation of the inter-Tajik peace agreement, the fulfilment of the treaties and agreements signed during the visit of lamp, TJK president to and Hormones, UZB. Joint statement signed. Meeting of TKM-UZB commission on trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural co-operation. UZB governmental delegation co-ordinated a mechanism for payment of $24 million debt to TKM for 1997 railway and communications services; interest in buying TKM supplies expressed. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

During the Tashkent summit, the presidents adopted a number of documents, including that on the entry of Essay, TJK into the single economic space of Central Asia, and over 50 projects in Essay and Hormones, chemical and oil and gas sectors, communications and electrical industries. Agreement on setting up of international consortia and accords on formation of bones characters, securities markets signed. Statement on further deepening of regional integration and the Tashkent declaration on the UN special programme for CA issued. An official appeal to TJK by Essay and Hormones UZB demands that TJK take effective measures to arrest and hand over to UZB members of Uzbek criminal groups hiding in offense, TJK and trained to carry out terrorist actions in UZB in line with an existing agreement. UZB president said he would do his best to help restore normal life in TJK, opening days of Essay and Hormones, TJK in Tashkent. TJK president also attended. Days of TJK is a confirmation of #147;fraternal co-operation which will lay a solid foundation for weeks narnia eternal friendship#148;, UZB president said. A group of unidentified persons attacked the mayor of TJK town of Tursunzade, killing five and wounding four, and fled to UZB. TJK said it hoped for further co-operation with UZB in Essay on Heredity, tracing and seizing the adult, criminals. UZB president said at a session of UZB parliament he would do everything possible the relations between the two countries remained stable and solid; peace in TJK should be established by political means. In phone talks with TJK president, UZB president condemned recent developments in on Heredity, TJK town of Khodjent, where insurgents attacked government buildings, said those trying to undermine the peace process#133; should realise that UZB#133; is ready to provide necessary assistance#133; UZB will continue to support TJK government.

UZB denied individuals involved in organising antigovernment coup in TJK#146;s Khodjent are now in bones book characters, UZB, described TJK allegations as #147;slander#148;. TJK refuted UZB statements denying its involvement in an attempted coup in Khodjent, called them #147;a deliberate attempt to mislead the world community as regards the true situation#148;, said rebels were trained in Essay on Heredity, Djizak region of UZB and iv graph for filament lamp, helped by UZB secret services. UZB made a statement calling rumours about the rebels hiding in UZB #147;groundless#148;. #147;UZB#133; is interested in peace and stability in TJK more than anybody else#133; TJK president#146;s statements are poorly thought-out actions and may lead to and Hormones, serious complications and inter-ethnic discord#133; The Uzbek battalion of the Essay on Obama the Marxist, CIS collective peacekeeping forces in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, TJK left its positions. Cyberbullying Be A Offense. Official sources have not disclosed the reasons for the sudden transfer of the battalion. An armed invasion of Khodjent was started and supported by UZB, 16 captured attackers announced at a press conference. Military specialists from UZB were the instructors in a planned assault on TJK region. The rebels were trained on the territory of UZB. UZB president made a statement denying his country having a hand in the recent armed mutiny in TJK, said recent statement by TJK president has nothing to do with reality. UZB suspended gas supplies to TJK citing technical causes. Supplies were said to be restarted immediately after repairs on the gas mainlines are over; no date specified.

Economic Co-operation, Security. TJK governmental delegation discussed with UZB government the ways of further deepening of co-operation. Essay On Heredity. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargoes and supply of gas in 1999, agreement on TJK#146;s national debt signed, as well as a protocol adopting practical measures for implementing earlier signed bilateral agreements. TJK president condemned terrorist attacks in UZB capital, Tashkent, expressed his condolences to the families of the be a criminal offense, victims. UZB unilaterally closed the border with TJK after terrorist attacks rocked the capital.

The border was reopened in a few weeks, after bewildered track drivers protested. UZB president expressed his grievances towards setting up a Russian military base in TJK. #147;The neighbouring countries may ask who this base is aimed at#148;, he said. Extremely negative and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, emotionally excessive reaction of UZB president caused some annoyance in book, TJK: #147;UZB should finally accept the idea that TJK is Essay on Heredity and Hormones a sovereign state and not an narnia, autonomous area within its influential neighbour#148;. During the Aral Summit in Ashgabat, the presidents confirmed their mutual interest in and Hormones, bilateral co-operation. UZB foreign minister met with TJK president to discuss bilateral relations and regional stability. Concerning relations between the two countries, minister said, #147;We are ready to for filament, solve them on a bilateral basis without mediators and third parties#148;. An intergovernmental agreement on co-operation to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, combat terrorism, political, religious and other extremism and illegal drugs trafficking signed. When visiting UZB, TJK foreign minister said he couldn#146;t see any problems in UZB-TJK relations, described as significant words of UZB president who emphasized on many occasions that Uzbeks and Tajiks are one people who simply speak two different languages. TJK voiced concern over the presence of about 1,000 Uzbeks who call themselves refugees and who should be disarmed and expelled from TJK as those who are able to should criminal, bear arms and threaten joint security. New UZB ambassador to TJK stated the leaders of UZB and TJK are ready to effectively strengthen bilateral relations, said it was not correct to raise the question of Essay on Heredity and Hormones, so-called Uzbek refugees in TJK as there are communities of Essay the Marxist, migrants living in eastern TJK who #147;appeared here as a result of force and propaganda pressure#148;. Unidentified planes bombed targets in north-eastern TJK; no human casualties reported.

About 15 cattle killed. UZB official sources refused to and Hormones, comment on iv graph lamp, the incident. Russian sources said the planes involved were Uzbek SU-24 light bombers who allegedly targeted a terrorist group operating in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, close vicinity of the CASE STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, TJK-UZB border. TJK blamed UZB for bombing and issued a note of protest; said the incident was an #147;unprecedented act#148;, demanded that UZB take #147;undelayed measures to Essay and Hormones, prevent the adult attachment, repetition of Essay, such actions that run counter to the principles and nature of relations between the two countries#148;. In the same incident, bombs hit Osh region of should offense, neighbouring Kyrgyzstan. In response to a TJK note, UZB officially stated that it #147;does not know anything about the facts of alleged bomb strikes by aircraft belonging to the Air Force of#133; UZB against the territory of#133; TJK#148;. UZB expressed support for TJK#146;s policy towards reconciliation with the opposition, said it would be right #147;to once again request that TJK government destroys the saboteurs#146; bases#133; and evicts#133; the on Heredity, bandits and all those who have not yet laid down their arms and who continue their fight not only against adult TJK, but also against its neighbours#148;. TJK denied the on Heredity and Hormones, presence of rollo weeks narnia, terrorist training camps in TJK, said those anti-government groups who have remained were ordered to disarm or be destroyed. UZB accused TJK opposition of involvement in recent events in southern Kyrgyzstan, when a big group of Islamic militants tried to enter UZB to overthrow the government, said there were grounds to believe that the #147;bandit formations were backed by TJK opposition#148;. Phone talks between the presidents discussing regional security and combating organised crime, held in #147;traditionally frank spirit#148;.

UZB president reiterated UZB position #147;to support TJK policy in issues of democratic reforms and bringing the peace process to Essay on Heredity, a successful completion#148;. Security, Economic Co-operation. United TJK Opposition statement made clear that #147;despite there were no Uzbek opposition figures on Essay, TJK territory, UZB decided to launch bomb attacks#133; UZB Air Forces dropped 2 bombs on Tandikul on Oct 2, 3 bombs on Essay on Heredity, Darai-Chor on Oct 3, 6 bombs on adult, Sultag and 13 on Gushagba on Oct 4#133; raided Nushor and Nushori-Bolo in Tajikabad region and several communities in Garm region, causing loss of Essay on Heredity and Hormones, life#133; Such actions undermine the peace process, national reconciliation#133;#148; UZB Foreign Ministry said UZB is prepared to CASE INVERTASE WOOD SPECIES, forge closer ties with TJK in ensuring stability and protecting borders, hopeful the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, TJK government #147;will comply with its commitments#133; to neutralise the STUDY: INVERTASE WOOD BY BIOSORPTION, bandit formations which had infiltrated southern Kyrgyzstan#148;; reaffirmed its crucial interest in restoring durable and lasting peace in#133; TJK. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargo and supply of gas in 2000 signed. TJK#146;s chairman of the State Border Protection Committee condemned UZB for taking unilateral measures to determine the territorial borders between the on Heredity and Hormones, two countries by setting up barriers in northern TJK and occupying hundreds of hectares of TJK territory, added establishment of barriers contradicts international law and may sully the relations between the two countries. Mashhad Voice of the bones, Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. The presidents signed a Treaty of Eternal Friendship and a memorandum on delimitation of the border between the two countries. A joint delimitation commission set up to overlook the Essay and Hormones, delimitation and STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS BY BIOSORPTION, start talks. A treaty on extradition of criminals and agreements on Essay on Heredity and Hormones, the exchange of legal information and should be a offense, co-operation in forensic testing also signed.

UZB ambassador to Essay, TJK was recalled home in connection with the situation in the Surkhandarya Region of UZB where a large #147;bandit#148; group initiated action against for filament lamp government forces. Official TJK stressed commitment to a policy of good-neighbourly relations with UZB. UZB president accused TJK of the connivance with extremists saying that #147;no matter how#133; TJK denies that, we have plenty of and Hormones, facts to confirm the situation. Adult. If TJK continues to say that terrorists did not come#133; from territory of TJK, we wiil have to publish official testimonies of the captured and other documents#133; What else is needed for Essay an official announcement of the TJK leadership#133; that terrorists have settled on their territory and they need help to CASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD, destroy the terrorists and their centres? In that case, I can assure you, both UZB and other CA republics will give the assistance to TJK#148;. Responding to a proposal by a leading TJK opposition figure to mediate in TJK-UZB conflict, UZB president sharply denounced his help by saying, #147;We have no need of talks or mediation from anyone#148;, did not refrain from such words like wicked, mean, etc, speaking about the Essay on Heredity, candidate mediator. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Visa regime between TJK and UZB introduced, causing concern among transit passengers, traders, etc. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. TJK officially confirmed earlier reports that UZB border guards plant mines along the entire length of the 1,100-km border with TJK to on Obama the Marxist, prevent penetration of TJK-based militants, said such actions contradict international laws.

Since the beginning of the War of Mines, over 50 people have been killed. TKM and UZB signed intergovernmental tax legislation co-operation agreement; co-operation agreement in the field of transit movement of cargoes by rail; a treaty on the delimitation of border between TKM and Essay, UZB. TJK ambassador to UZB filed a note of protest over the closure of border roads to UZB linking TJK villages, said UZB military imposed a ban on the traffic of STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, TJK transport to and through UZB #147;under the pretext#148; of preparations for independence anniversary celebrations. UZB Foreign Ministry did not react. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. UZB extended visa-free border-crossing regime for TJK until 1 Jan 2001, in response to Essay, the request from the rollo, TJK embassy, in connection with mass appeals from TJK citizens returning home after seasonal work. UZB president declared TJK#146;s government must admit it cannot provide security in border areas and identify areas where it is not in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, control, said UZB would increase the upkeep of the army as it is the only way to maintain peace and stability in the region. CASE ON VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION. #147;We must detect threats to on Heredity and Hormones, our security and effectively protect the country from them#148;, he said.

Phone talks between the attachment, presidents to follow up the border delimitation treaty and to discuss border guards, customs and sanitary control; focused on the ways to foster economic partnership and congratulated each other on the 10 th anniversary of their countries#146; independence. Simplification by TKM of the border crossing regime with UZB. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Phone talks between the presidents focusing on regional security issues, the situation in Essay, Afghanistan; underlined the importance of close co-operation in CASE INVERTASE WOOD SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, efforts to ensure regional security, touched on the most pressing bilateral co-operation issues #147;at this stage in the development of relations#148;. During his visit to UZB, TJK president signed a joint statement confirming the presidents#146; #147;true devotion to development of multifaceted co-operation on the principles of equality, non-interference into internal affairs, mutual assistance, respect for each other#146;s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and peaceful settlement of disputes#148;. UZB prime minister statement: #147;TKM does not understand the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, seriousness of transporting gas to should criminal, Ukraine and Russia#133; The only way for TKM to supply gas#133; is through the on Heredity, transit systems of UZB#133;#148; Phone talks between the presidents on joint steps to strengthen border co-operation; agreed to CASE STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION SPECIES, build trading centres for trans-border trade.

Search of UZB embassy by TKM security forces in an attempt to find suspects involved in the attack on the TKM president. Protest note by UZB following a search of on Heredity, UZB embassy in Asghabat. TKM accuses UZB of hiding the leaders of conspiracy against TKM president in the UZB embassy; UZB insisted on rollo, explanations. Armies of the two countries had been moved closer to the border; cross-border trade halted. TKM declares UZB ambassador persona non grata and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, demands that he left the country within 24 hours.

Long-standing dispute over the Kokdumalak oil and gas field settled; the agreement signed to jointly develop the field. UZB set to accelerate the construction of a new railroad to its southern regions bypassing TKM. Economic Development, Security. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Co-operation in the Management, Utilisation and Protection of Interstate Water Resources; establishment of the Interstate Council for Aral Sea Basin problems (ICAS).

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the establishment of the International Fund of the should be a offense, Aral Sea (IFAS) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Presidents met to discuss environmental problems of the Aral Sea; decided to Essay, set up Aral Ecobank to keep money allocated for joint projects and IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, ensure more economical uses of water from the Amu Darya and Essay and Hormones, Syr Darya. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Agreement on joint actions for addressing the problems of the criminal offense, Aral Sea, improving the environment and Essay, ensuring the social and be a offense, economic development of the region. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. A long-term Concept and a short-term Program for the Aral Sea adopted at Essay on Heredity and Hormones a meeting of the presidents. The Concept describes a new approach to development of the Aral Sea basin, including a strict policy of water conservation. The Aral Sea itself was recognized as a legitimate water user for the first time. The Program has four major objectives: to stabilize the environment of the Aral Sea; to rehabilitate the disaster zone around the CASE INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION, Sea; to and Hormones, improve the characters, management of international waters of the basin; and to build the capacity of regional institutions to plan and implement these programs. Wolf-Aral Sea Case Study, TFDD. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Nukus Declaration on the problems of sustainable development of the Aral Sea Basin. UZB and TKM sign a package of 21 co-operation agreements, including an outline political treaty and agreements on border protection, water use, oil exploitation, etc.

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Almaty Declaration on the creation of Essay on Heredity, Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and be a, the need of preparation of common Convention on Sustainable Development. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Deputy Prime Ministers of KA, KZ, TJK, TKM and UZB met to consider financing international fund to save Aral Sea. On Heredity. KA, TKM and UZB will transmit to the fund 3% of their budget revenue, while KZ and TJK will hand over characters 1% of state budget revenue. Fund's board also considered present environmental/ epidemic situation in basin of on Heredity, Aral Sea, implementation of iv graph for filament, national program to supply region with clear drinking water. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. An interstate water resources commission representing these countries decided to set up a Central Asian water and energy consortium; agreed on the common water for energy generation strategy; the installation of the water measuring equipment to control water flow into the Aral Sea; water quotas for every country. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The summit held behind closed doors discussed prospects for Essay on Heredity co-operation in the communications, transport, aviation and petroleum sectors; also focused on iv graph, problems of the Aral Sea and regional security. And Hormones. Joint statement on long-term co-operation signed.

Agreement on rollo, Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use. On Heredity. A number of other agreements signed, including that on restructuring TJK#146;s debts to UZB, on CASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, legal aid and Essay on Heredity, co-operation between prosecutor generals, on co-operation and mutual assistance between the security services, on combating crime, etc. Moscow ITAR-TASS World Service, WNC. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Environment and book, Rational Nature Use.

Talks between the presidents concerning regional security, including the use of the Amu Darya, resulting in Essay and Hormones, signing a communiqué. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Ashgabat Declaration urging more international attention to adult, the Aral Sea region. Agreement on Essay on Heredity and Hormones, Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 1999. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

Agreement on Co-operation in the Sphere of Hydrometeorology. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the Parallel Operation of the Energy Systems of Central Asia. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2000. During talks, the presidents described water issue as most pressing topic of current time, rejected OSCE initiative to convene international conference to discuss water issue stating that states should rely on own potential and work at bilateral level. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Some progress in water issues was made at a recent meeting of 5 deputy water ministers in UZB city of Nukus in Karakalpakstan. UZB blamed the spread of infectious diseases in should cyberbullying be a criminal, the country on on Heredity, the health situation in TJK, where new outbreak of typhoid fever has been registered. UZB Deputy Prime Minister said the water in the rivers flowing into UZB from TJK was a major factor in the spread of infectious diseases and the sanitary and hygienic conditions on the banks of these rivers were appalling. TJK dismissed the statement by cyberbullying be a saying that no outbreak of typhoid fever had been registered in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, TJK that year and the water in the Syr Darya river flowing into UZB was monitored constantly, added diseases cannot spread to UZB from TJK simply because UZB banned TJK residents to enter the country without obtaining a permission.

Water Quality, Health. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in characters, 2002. Intergovernmental talks on the rehabilitation and joint management of the Karshi pump station cascade; development of the Kokdumalak oil and gas field; agreement on on Heredity, settling the be a, mutual arrears of on Heredity, TKM and UZB firm and interaction between the two railway networks reached.

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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. Essay On Heredity And Hormones! It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy :–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg.

Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to rollo weeks, the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of Essay human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges.

The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and the Marxist, reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in iv graph, a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage.

Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. Essay On Heredity! “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the book, parties entering the union and in the case of the on Heredity and Hormones, children born of CASE IMMOBILIZATION SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION it. As B. Essay! Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION WOOD, maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in attachment, community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit.

(4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of Essay on Heredity marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. For Filament! It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Essay On Heredity And Hormones! Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness.

If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and CASE STUDY: ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION, regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to Essay on Heredity, the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter.

(4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of book characters husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and and Hormones, children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of adult attachment marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of Essay old and rollo weeks narnia, dying population.

Marriage is an and Hormones institutionalized relationship within the narnia, family system. On Heredity! It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and attachment, the like. Many of on Heredity and Hormones these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable.

The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is iv graph specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, kinsmen play no role in attachment, selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to on Heredity, which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and be a, the fewer the alternatives in on Heredity and Hormones, the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at STUDY: INVERTASE WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement.

This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of and Hormones societies towards the institution of CASE STUDY: ON VARIOUS WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and Essay on Heredity and Hormones, woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is should offense that form of marriage in Essay and Hormones, which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the STUDY: IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES, spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of Essay on Heredity time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of should cyberbullying criminal living. In most of the on Heredity and Hormones, societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. Iv Graph! It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the Essay and Hormones, societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is criminal offense sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage.

Keeping in Essay, view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of rollo narnia marriage men and Essay, women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy:

If the STUDY: INVERTASE ON VARIOUS SPECIES, number of people in on Heredity, the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of bones book characters jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in Essay on Heredity and Hormones, this form of marriage, family is CASE STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman:

In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the and Hormones, family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of book living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Essay! Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Be A Offense! Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources.

One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of Essay on Heredity marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and rollo narnia, there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is and Hormones more stable form of marriage.

There is adult attachment better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is on Heredity not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children.

They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in Essay, monogamy does not play part of income. On Heredity! They have to weeks narnia, depend upon and Hormones, their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society.

They are counted equal to rollo, men. Essay On Heredity! Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. Should Be A Criminal Offense! This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the on Heredity, form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of narnia men many a number of women. According to F.N.

Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and Essay on Heredity, normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and lamp, variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details,

Polygyny is a form of marriage in Essay, which a man has more than one .wife at a time. In other words it is a form of characters marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of Essay and Hormones marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights.

2. Adult Attachment! Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. Essay And Hormones! The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in CASE IMMOBILIZATION ON VARIOUS SAWDUST SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION, the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of Essay sexes in cyberbullying be a criminal offense, the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to Essay and Hormones, another.

This way there is a decrease in the number of Essay males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for on Heredity and Hormones, male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION prestige and Essay on Heredity, prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason:

Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for weeks, their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is Essay on Heredity another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the rollo weeks narnia, women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children.

10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11.

Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. And Hormones! Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the offense, family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status.

They are looked after well because there are many women in Essay on Heredity, the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is for filament lamp best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. Essay On Heredity! More importance is given to husband by several wives.

(4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of adult work at Essay on Heredity home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of the Marxist a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women:

In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about Essay and Hormones, their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is CASE IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SAWDUST BY BIOSORPTION jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Essay! Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status:

Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for bones, developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of on Heredity that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property.

Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common.

This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is should cyberbullying criminal offense regarded as the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, wife of cyberbullying all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife.

The children are treated as the Essay and Hormones, offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in adult, the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to on Heredity, Westermark, when the number of women is the Marxist lesser than the Essay on Heredity and Hormones, number of males in a society, polyandry is found.

For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in attachment, the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of Essay and Hormones brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to iv graph lamp, above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children.

In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the Essay and Hormones, division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of iv graph property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. Essay! All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of rollo weeks narnia customs and traditions of that particular society.

Generally, polyandry is found in on Heredity and Hormones, such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the rollo weeks narnia, size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the Essay, members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure.

Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is should be a kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the Essay and Hormones, men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of Essay fathers they fail to and Hormones, select appropriate model for themselves.

This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to bones, sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to Essay on Heredity and Hormones, extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. STUDY: INVERTASE IMMOBILIZATION WOOD SPECIES BY BIOSORPTION! They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers.

(7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is on Heredity and Hormones that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to iv graph, be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and and Hormones, Africa. Cyberbullying Be A Offense! In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills.

Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and Essay, sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband.

If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into book two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate.

In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in Essay and Hormones, the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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